Genome Biology Format Bibliography

Instructions to Authors

Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE) publishes leading original research at the interface between evolutionary biology and genomics. Papers considered for publication report novel evolutionary findings that concern natural genome diversity, population genomics, the structure, function, organisation and expression of genomes, comparative genomics, proteomics, and environmental genomic interactions. Major evolutionary insights from the fields of computational biology, structural biology, developmental biology, and cell biology are also considered, as are theoretical advances in the field of genome evolution. GBE’s scope embraces genome-wide evolutionary investigations at all taxonomic levels and for all forms of life—within populations or across domains. Its aims are to further the understanding of genomes in their evolutionary context and further the understanding of evolution from a genome-wide perspective.

Instructions to Authors

Embargoed Data
Publication Charges and Open Access
Online Submission of Manuscripts
Latex Submissions
Review of Manuscripts
Revised Manuscript
Conflict of Interest
Types of Manuscripts
Preparation of Manuscripts
Language Editing

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.


Papers that are accepted at GBE are published on Advance Access within 48 hours of acceptance. The data underlying papers submitted to GBE must also be made publically accessible at that time. By submitting a paper to GBE, authors acknowledge that the data underlying the paper can be released at the time of acceptance. GBE follows the Fort Lauderdale Agreement on fair use of community resource data.


Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE) publishes leading original research at the interface between evolutionary biology and genomics. Papers considered for publication report novel evolutionary findings that concern natural genome diversity, population genomics, the structure, function, organisation and expression of genomes, comparative genomics, proteomics, and environmental genomic interactions. Major evolutionary insights from the fields of computational biology, structural biology, developmental biology, and cell biology are also considered, as are theoretical advances in the field of genome evolution. GBE’s scope embraces genome-wide evolutionary investigations at all taxonomic levels and for all forms of life—within populations or across domains. Its aims are to further the understanding of genomes in their evolutionary context and further the understanding of evolution from a genome-wide perspective.


GBE is an open access journal and depends upon open access publication fees for its operation. For every accepted paper, there will be an open access fee of US$1800 / £1125 / €1463 (plus VAT or other taxes applicable in your country). Perspectives will be charged at $1250 / £781 / €1016. GBE does not apply any additional charges, for example, color or excess pages. All accepted papers are freely available to everybody online, upon publication, without the barrier of paid subscription to access them.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses. Authors publishing in GBE can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY) or the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC) for their articles.

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

If you are working in a developing country visit our Developing Countries page for a list of qualifying countries

  • Reduced Rate Developing country charge* - £563 / $900 / €732
  • Free Developing country charge* - £0 /$0 / €0

If you are working in a developing country and are unable to pay the open access fee, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.


Manuscripts are submitted electronically. To submit your manuscript to GBE, please visit the GBE submission portal and follow the instructions to log in.

Submission of a paper implies that it reports unpublished work and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published tables, illustrations or more than 200 words of text are included in the submission, then the copyright holder's written permission must be obtained and copies of any such permission letters must be enclosed with the paper.

To contact the editorial office, please send an email.


While you should prepare your typescript text using a word-processing package (save in .doc or .rtf format), PDF files may be acceptable if you have used LaTeX to write your manuscript. Typescripts should be double-spaced. Please number each page.

LaTeX: When creating the pdf file from standard word processing packages, it is important to select the option "embed all fonts" (or equivalent) to ensure that mathematical symbols appear correctly. Failure to do so may result in an unreadable submission. Instructions for generating correct PDF files can be found at

Manuscripts must be prepared using the TeX class file (available here as a .zip file, accompanied by notes on usage). Once a Tex file is created, it can be submitted to the editorial office.

Please see our LaTeX submissions FAQ page for more detailed instructions for LaTeX submissions.


Manuscripts that are within the scope of the journal are peer reviewed. Those not meeting the journal's scientific standards and those outside the journal’s scope are declined and returned to the authors. GBE has a strong commitment to the rapid handling of submissions. Authors can expect a first decision on their submission within four to six weeks.


Revised manuscripts should be submitted within two months of the author's receipt of the referees' reports. Revised manuscripts returned after two months will be considered as new submissions and may be subject to re-review. Authors should notify the editorial office as soon as possible if revisions will require longer than two months.


All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based on substantial contribution to conception and design, execution, or analysis and interpretation of data. All authors should be involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors must have read and approved the final version of the manuscript, assurance of which should be given in the covering letter.


At the stage of online submission, GBE’s policy requires that each author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated - including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organisation(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it? It is the Corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy. If the manuscript is published, Conflict of Interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.


For accepted manuscripts, authors are sent page proofs by the publisher. Please provide an email address to enable page proofs to be sent as PDF files via email. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographic errors and returned to the production office by fax or email within 2 working days. Essential changes of an extensive nature may be made only by insertion of a Note Added in Proof. Page charges are not levied. Authors are, however, charged for extensive changes made in proof and for special items such as color plates.


GBE considers the following kinds of manuscripts:

  • Research Articles
  • Letters
  • Genome Reports
  • Perspectives
  • Reviews
  • Genome Resources
  • Research Articles should be divided into the following sequence of headed sections: Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References. The total length of the main text (excluding references) should not exceed 10,000 words. Up to 10 items (tables or figures) may be included. Limit the number of references to 100, preferably fewer. Include supplementary material only where necessary and make sure that the supplementary material is supplied in a suitable format that can be readily accessed by all interested parties.
  • Letters should begin with Abstract, followed by the main text, followed by a Material and Methods section, Acknowledgments, and References. The main text may contain up to four informative sub-headed sections. The total length of the main text (excluding references) should generally not exceed 3,000 words. Up to 6 items (tables or figures) may be included. Limit the number of references to about 50. Include supplementary material only where necessary and make sure that the supplementary material is supplied in a suitable format that can be readily accessed by all interested parties.
  • Genome Reports are focused papers, usually of about 1500 words, that publish the main evolutionary message of new genome sequences as they become submitted to GenBank. Nearly every new genome sequence harbors an important advance in evolutionary understanding. The Genome Reports section at GBE is the premier forum to deliver that information directly to the genome evolutionary community in a rapid and efficient publication of the genome sequence. While the focus of Genome Reports are new genome sequences, submissions to Genome Reports may also contain specifically focused comparative analyses of previously published genomes that contain a substantial and novel insight of broadest evolutionary significance. Genome Reports should be formatted according to the guidelines given for Letters to GBE. Of course, GBE continues to welcome longer and more detailed manuscripts that report more fully on a new genome sequence and its evolutionary significance. These should be submitted as a standard Research Article.
  • Perspectives address current topics in genome evolution. Perspectives do not report new data or new results. Instead they provide a forum for authoritative synthesis on issues at the forefront of genome evolution. While authors of Perspectives will have some freedom to explore new ideas and some leeway to express their own views, submitted manuscripts will be peer reviewed and in order to be accepted they will need to represent an advance in understanding for the field. Perspectives may offer scholarly comment on papers that have appeared recently in GBE or in other journals, but submissions offering critique only will not be considered. That is, Perspectives need to convey a positive message moving forward. Perspectives should be terse, with up to 1500 words, two figures or tables and 30 references.
  • Reviews can be solicited by the editors or can be suggested by prospective authors, who should contact the Reviews Editor with a roughly two-page outline summarizing the scope and content. The total length of the main text (excluding references) should not exceed 15,000 words. Reviews should have an abstract of 250 words or less, followed by a concise introduction, section headers as needed and a concluding summary. Reviews in GBE should present a balanced and up-to-date view of developments within their scope. Supporting graphics and tables are encouraged. Textboxes may be used to explain important concepts to the non-specialist reader. Supplementary materials should be avoided where possible. Limit the number of references to 200. Like Research Articles, Letters, and Perspectives, Reviews will be subject to peer review.
  • Genome Resources report databases, applications, packages and methods that further the study of genome evolution. As data from genomes continue to accumulate, one of the biggest challenges facing the field is keeping up with the data themselves. The Genome Resources section at GBE will report tools that allow researchers to compile, extract, and analyze genome data to address evolutionary questions. Genome Resources can either be short papers, formatted according to the guidelines for Letters to GBE, or more comprehensive papers corresponding in length to a Research Article, depending on the nature of the resource.


General Format

Prepare your manuscript text using a Word processing package (save in .doc or .rtf format). Remember to number each page. Use double spacing (space between lines of type not less than 6 mm) throughout the manuscript and leave margins of 25 mm (1 inch) at the top, bottom and sides of each page. Please avoid footnotes. Type references in the correct order and in GBE style (see below). Type without hyphenation, except for compound words. Type headings in the style of the journal. Use the TAB key once for paragraph indents. Where possible use Times for the text font and Symbol for the Greek and special characters.

Use the word processing formatting features to indicate strong Bold, Italic, Greek, Maths, Superscript, and Subscript characters. Clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters. Differentiate between the letter O and zero, and the letters I and l and the number 1. Mark the approximate position of each figure and table.

Check the final copy of your paper carefully, as any spelling mistakes and errors may be translated into the typeset version.

Sections of the Manuscript

  • Title: The title should accurately advertise the paper’s content and contain 150 characters or less including spaces.
  • Authors and affiliations: Provide the name and institutional address of all authors, match addresses to names using superscript numbers.
  • Corresponding author: The name of the author to whom all correspondence is to be addressed should be indicated with an asterisk in the author line and specified as follows:
    • *Author for Correspondence: John Smith, Department of Science, University of Somewhere, Anytown, USA, telephone number, fax number, email address
  • Data deposition: Supply all accession numbers for the relevant databases. New sequence data must be deposited in GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL. Any sequence alignments used must be made available as supplemental information or by the corresponding author upon request.
  • Abstract: The first page of the manuscript should begin with the abstract, which should be a concise summary of the paper. Avoided reference citations in the Abstract; if mentioned, the full reference must be given. The Abstract should contain 250 words or less.
  • Key words: Up to six key words should be given below the abstract. Key words facilitate retrieval of articles by search engines, web directories and indexes; therefore, terms that are too general should be avoided. The selected key words should not repeat words given in the title. The aim is to assist potential readers to find the article by clearly and specifically describing its subject matter, including aspects of methodology or the theoretical framework.
  • References: Published articles and those in press (state the journal that has accepted them, provide a doi where possible) may be included. Do not include any reference cited only in Supplementary files.
    In the text citation, a reference should be cited by author and date. Do not place text other than the author and date within the parentheses. No more than two authors may be cited per text citation; if there are more than two authors, use et al. in the text (unless more are necessary to distinguish between references).
    In the reference list, list all authors if the author total is five authors or fewer; with more than five list the first author (only) followed by et al.
    At the end of the manuscript, the references should be typed in alphabetical order, with the authors' names, year, paper title, journal, volume number, inclusive page numbers, and name and address of publisher (for books only). The name of the journal should be abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals. References should therefore be listed as follows:
    • Cagan RH, Rhein LD. 1980. Biochemical basis of recognition of taste and olfactory stimuli. In: van der Starre H, editor. Olfaction and Taste VII. Oxford: IRL Press. p. 35-44.
    • Marshall DA, Moulton DG. 1981. Olfactory sensitivity to alpha-ionone in humans and dogs. Chem Senses. 6:53-61.
    • van der Starre H, editor. 1980. Olfaction and Taste VII. Oxford: IRL Press.
    • Avoid personal communications and mention of unpublished data.
    • References to websites should be avoided, but if they are given, the references should give authors (if known), title of cited page, URL in full, and year of posting in parentheses.
  • Tables: Tables should be prepared on separate sheets and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. They must be supplied in an editable format (.xlsx or .docx, for example) rather than an image. They should be self-explanatory and include a brief descriptive title. They should be of such a size that they fit easily onto a journal page, the type area of which is 234 (height) x 185 mm (double column width) or 89 mm (single column width). Footnotes to tables indicated by lower case letters are acceptable, but they should not include extensive experimental details.
  • Illustrations: All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) must be referred to in the text (as Figure 1 etc.) and should be abbreviated to 'Fig. 1.' only in the figure legend. At online submission, you will be required to submit images electronically in one of the following formats: .jpg, .gif, .tif, .pdf or .eps.

    Each figure should be on a separate page and should be submitted at roughly final magnification. Use sans serif fonts such as Arial or Helvetica in figures. Use uniform font size in each figure whenever possible and recall that labels should never smaller than 6 pt at final magnification.
  • Electronic submission of figures: Save figures at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for color figures and photographs, and 600 pixels per inch for black and white line drawings. Color art must be submitted in CMYK rather than RGB format. Authors should be satisfied with the colors in CMYK (both on screen and when printed) before submission. Please also keep in mind that colors can appear differently on different screens and printers. Failure to follow these guides could result in complications and delays. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, click here.
  • Figure legends: These should be included at the end of the manuscript text. Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure. Common abbreviations and others in the preceding text need not be redefined in the legend.
  • Color Figures: All figures submitted to the journal in color will be published in color online at no cost to authors.
  • Permissions for Illustrations and Figures: Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section. Information on permissions contacts for a number of main galleries and museums can also be provided. Should you require copies of this, please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.
  • Funding: Authors who are NIH-funded will have their paper automatically deposited in PubMed Central. Details of all funding sources for the work should be given in the 'Acknowledgements' section. A full list of RIN-approved UK funding agencies may be found here.

    The following convention should be followed:
    • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
    • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
    • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
    • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
    • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.
    • Example: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AP50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.]; and the Education Research Council [hfygr667789].
    • Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See this page for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Other Information

  • Conventions: In general, the journal follows the conventions of the CSE Style Manual (Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA, 2006, 7th ed.). Follow Chemical Abstracts and its indexes for chemical names. For guidance in the use of biochemical terminology follow the recommendations issued by the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature, as given in Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, published by the Biochemical Society, UK. For enzymes use the recommended name assigned by the IUPAC-IUB Commission on the Biochemical Nomenclature, 1978, as given in Enzyme Nomenclature, published by Academic Press, New York, 1980. Where possible, use the recommended SI (Systéme International) units.

    Genotypes should be italicized; phenotypes should not be italicized.
  • Abbreviations: Try to restrict the use of abbreviations to SI symbols and those recommended by the IUPAC-IUB. Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses after their first mention in the text. Standard units of measurements and chemical symbols of elements may be used without definition in the body of the paper.
  • Chemical Formulae and Mathematical Equations: Wherever possible, write mathematical equations and chemical formulae on a single line. Submit complicated chemical structures as artwork.
  • Human and Animal Experiments: The editors draw the authors' attention to the Declaration of Helsinki for Medical Research involving Human Subjects In addition, when reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
  • Ethics Guidelines: In order to guarantee a consistent policy of review and publication, Genome Biology and Evolution endorses the Ethics Guidelines offered by the Society for Neuroscience. These guidelines describe the responsibilities and expected conduct not only of authors of scientific articles, but also of the editors and reviewers. We encourage our readers to take a few minutes to download and look over these guidelines at
  • Crossref Funding Data Registry : In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.


Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


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