The Paris Eiffel Tower Essay
The topic I am going to write about is The Eiffel Tower in France about its structure, history etc. Because Eiffel Tower is a very significant man-made building at that time(1889) and still the most famous and recognizable tower people could think of in the world nowadays.
1.1 History and background of The Eiffel Tower.
The Eiffel Tower is located in Paris, France, buildt in 1889 and it is 1063 feet tall. The reason of the name of the Eiffel Tower is because it was named after Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who was a famous civil engineer and architect. The tower was built for the International Exhibition of Paris in memory of the centenary of the French Revolution. It means too much for the french people, it is a sign of freedom and justice, and it has a huge political meaning.
Also during world war 1, The Eiffel Tower was used for communicating, it used as a wireless telegraph transmitter, so french military used the tower to talk wirelessly with ships in the Atlantic Ocean and block enemy messages.
Nowaday, The Eiffel Tower is still broadcasting radio and television signals in Paris, the capital city.
The work digging of the foundation began in 1887 and took 2 years, two months and five days to finish from 0% to 100%, it has been the highest building for 41 years until th e Chrysler Building in New York in 1930. The tower totally used 18000 pieces of iron was specifically designed and accurately calculated of a tenth of a millimeter, the thickness of the iron is only about 6 centimeters, because the expansion and contraction of irons the shape of the Eiffel Tower will slightly change, the iron where close to the sun side will expand so the peak of the tower moved away from the sunshine by 18 centimeters. These 18000 pieces of pudding iron(7,300 tonnes) packaging together and form new shapes of pieces, each of them measures about five metres long.Rivets are everywhere in the tower to make to tower fixed and stand, around 2,500,000 rivets were used in the construction of the Eiffel Tower. Because of the materials has been used to build Eiffel Tower, it has very great wind resistance, only sways 7m (maximum) in the wind.
The Eiffel Tower's color is dark brown, not black. 60 tonnes of paint needed to mopping the whole tower every seven years
The Eiffel Tower, not only the city sign of Paris, it attracts so many people every year to France. The tower has three floors and two restaurants, which are both very expensive, on the second floor this restaurant has rewarded one star in the Michelin Red Guild.Eiffel Tower is one of their most attractions, since it construct, the tower already attracted 200milliom people, this is significant, it is able to contribute huge amounts of money to France's economy. At 2010, Eiffel Tower attracted 250millions people. At 2012 the Eiffel Tower has been declared the most valuable monument in Europe, which worth 435 billion euros, and the tower is the most visited...
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The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], IPA pronunciation: "EYE-full" English; "eh-FEHL" French) is a famous landmark in Paris. It was built between 1887 and 1889 for the Exposition Universialle (World Fair). The Tower was the Exposition's main attraction.
Background[change | change source]
The Eiffel Tower cost 7,799,401.31 French gold francs to build in 1889, an amount equal to $1,495,139.89 at that time. Today, it’s cost would equal $36,784,020.11. It is 300 metres (984 ft.) tall, but this height does not include the 24 m (79 ft.) aerial (antenna) on the top; the total height of the structure is 324 m (1,063 feet). It has a square base that is 100 m (328 ft.) long on each side. The second story platform is 115.5 meters (379 ft.) off the ground.
There are also 1,710 steps inside the Eiffel Tower, although visitors can only climb the first 704 steps to the first floor. In total, the tower weighs 10,000 tons, 7,300 of which are wrought iron. It consists of 18,038 pieces and 2.5 million rivets put on by heat. The weight of paint used is 60 tons (12,000 gallons), and the surface to be painted is 250,000 square meters. Since it has been built it has been repainted 18 times. Each of these 18 paint jobs there were only 25 painters are hired to do the job.Three separate colors of paint are used on the structure in order to enhance the impression of height, with the lightest at the top.
There are 20,000 sparkling lights and 80 kilometers of cables covering the structure. The paper used to print the visitors' tickets in one year weighs 2 tons. The top of the tower leans away from the sun as the metal facing the sun heats up and expands it can move as much as 7 inches and grow 6 inches taller.The tower was also built to sway slightly in the wind.
History[change | change source]
The Eiffel Tower was built by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel for the 100th year anniversary of the French Revolution. Even though Gustave Eiffel is credited for the Eiffel Tower it was actually two lesser known people who came up with the original drawing of it. These people were Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier. These two men were the chief engineers of Eiffel’s engineering firm. The main architect was Stephen Sauvestre.
Koechlin, Nouguier, Sauvestre, and Eiffel submitted the plans to compete for the spot on the champ de mars plot of land, to serve as the expositions entrance. It would also determine the 1889 world's fair centerpiece in Paris. There were 107 bids submitted to construct the Eiffel Tower. Fifty people worked on the design, and more than 100 built the parts. One hundred and thirty two workers assembled the parts on site.
The first digging for the foundations began on January 28, 1887 and all construction was concluded on March 31, 1889. When the tower was built, it was only meant to be kept for 20 years. People did not like the Eiffel Tower and wanted it taken down because they thought is was an ugly structure polluting the scenery of the paris sky. After the 20 years, the tower became the property of Paris again.
By this time, the city had learned that the tower could be used to help with communications. There was also a metrology lab that had been installed for studies on everything from gravity to electricity. The military used the tower as a wireless telegraph transmitter for communication during battle. The tower was used in the capture of the spy "Mata Hari" during World War I after a message was intercepted. Today, it is used to send radio and television signals to the capital city of paris and beyond. After people learned about the many benefits the tower provided, no one wanted it to be taken apart.
The Eiffel Tower joined the green energy movement by building two wind turbines on the second level. These wind turbines produce 10,000 kilowatt hours of electricity each year. That is enough energy to sustain the commercial part of the tower on the first floor. The point of having these wind turbines is to suggest that, if the Eiffel Tower, one of the most famous buildings in the world, can use green energy, then why can’t the rest of the world?
Construction[change | change source]
There were 50 architects, engineers, and draftsmen that created 5,300 drawings of the Eiffel Tower before the construction started. Once they had a plan, there were 18,000 pieces built and prepared in Eiffel's factory outside of town. These pieces were created to the accuracy of 1/10 of a millimeter. These pieces were put together to form new pieces that were 5 meters long to be transported to the building site.
There were 132 workers there to assemble the pieces on site. All the pieces were put into place and hooked together by thermally assembled rivets. There were 4 men needed to assemble a single rivet: one person to heat the rivet up, another to hold it in place, a third to shape the head, and a fourth person to beat the rivet with a sledge hammer.
Only ⅓ of the 2.5 million rivets were assembled on site. The work on the foundations took 5 months. The workers only used spades, and the rubble was taken away by horses and steam locomotives.
There was no problem building the pillars on the Champ de Mars side of the tower. But on the Seine River side of the tower, foundations used compressed air and corrugated steel caissons five meters under water. The deepest foundations are 15 meters under ground. The feet of the tower are set in each of these foundation ditches. These foundations support the four pillars or truss frames.
The difficulty building the first floor was in bringing building materials and people up to it with a point of departure as in the elevators. The elevators had to be positioned at a slanting angle to meet the horizontal beams on the first floor. The elevator had to use hydraulic jacks to move and erect the elevator up the slanted legs. Currently the hydraulic jacks are not in use due to more advanced technology. The second floor was assembled with cranes that took the same route as the elevators. There was no troubles from this point onward in the construction.