Human resources planning
Human resources are the people that work for an organisation, and Human Resource Management is concerned with how these people are managed. However, the term Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to mean more than this because people are different from the other resources that work for an organisation. People have thoughts and feelings, aspirations and needs. The term HRM has thus come to refer to an approach, which takes into account both:
1.the needs of the organisation
2.the needs of its people.
Different individuals have their own needs and aspirations. HRM therefore involves finding out about the needs and aspirations of individual employees, for example through the appraisal process and then creating the opportunities within the organisation (e.g. through job enlargement) and outside the organisation (e.g. through taking up educational opportunities at local colleges/universities) for employees to improve themselves. HRM therefore relates to every aspect of the way in which the organisation interacts with its people, e.g. by providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to find out about individual needs, training and development needs analysis, etc.
Opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help the organisation to achieve its objectives. Development - the provision of opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help themselves to achieve personal objectives. Training and development needs analysis - an analysis of the opportunities and experiences that are required for individuals to train and develop in order to meet organisational and personal objectives. A training and development plan can then be created to set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps.
Audi has developed a training and development programme designed for technicians at the company. Technicians are appraised by their line managers to identify their personal training and development needs. They then work with a professional consultants on development training activities as well as attending relevant courses either at the Audi training centre or on external courses. The technicians are able to use a multimedia based Training Needs Analysis tool that enables them to produce a Personal Development Plan automatically.
This research is a part of a long-term research cooperation – Central and Eastern European International Research Team (CEEIRT), which summarizes the research results of universities from Central and Eastern Europe. During our research, we try to understand the human resource (HR) trends’ flows and characteristics, which appear due to the effects of economical and social changes within a country. We evaluate HR practices and roles apparent in the local subsidiaries of multinational enterprises.
Europe follows the universal American perspective (‘best practice’) in many regards, but there are multiple differentiating attributes, which call for the individual interpretation of the European Human Resource Planning. Brewster1 stressed the importance of the fact that American Human Resource Management is criticized due to their level of applicability to European practice. An important fact to note is that prior research considers Europe the most differentiated and colourful continent. For example, of the 10 clusters of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (2004) research, 5 clusters are European.2 The number of countries in Europe, meaning both the national and cultural variety, was constantly on the rise after World War II. Culture researchers like Hofstede,3,4 Laurent,5 Adler6 and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner7 all attested to the fact that countries close to each other geographically on micro level, and even continental areas on macro level may have definitive differences, for example, in the practice of management. Due to the respective histories of the region’s countries, their respective economic development levels and the centralization of the Socialist era, different variations of human resource management (HRM) practices and methods were developed. As Brewster said, these countries only showed the characteristics of modern HRM in barely noticeable shades due to them being developed in the previous system.8 After World War II, redrawn borders broke the Western European-type organic development of personal activities of the region.9