Advantages Of Literature Based Dissertation Defense

The PhD program in English Language, Literature, and Research is designed to permit the full-time student to secure the doctorate in approximately six years; financial support is tied to a series of deadlines which aim at such a schedule.

Course Requirements

Fourteen graded courses (at the 5000, 8000, or 9000 level) are required for the PhD in English. These must include ENCR 8100 (Introduction to Literary Research), a third-semester Pedagogy Seminar, and, in preparation for writing the dissertation, ENGL 9995 (Dissertation Seminar). In selecting the remaining eleven courses, students should keep in mind the following distribution requirements: one course in MD or RN, one course in EC or NC, and one course in the history of criticism or literary theory. (On submission of this form signed and filled out by our DGS, MA-transfers typically receive credit for 6-8 courses from their previous graduate program.) Students who are enrolled in the PhD program, have completed all other requirements for the MA, and have passed at least one half of the PhD oral may apply for the MA degree.

Required Audits or Sit-Ins

In addition to the fourteen graded courses, all doctoral candidates are required to audit or sit-in on two courses during their third year of study, attending faithfully and meeting all requirements apart from the submission of major essays; course instructors must approve audit or sit-in status in advance and certify satisfactory participation. (See this page for the working distinction between authorized sit-ins and audits.) These two audits or sit-ins may be offered in fulfillment of distribution requirements.

Non-Topical Research Courses

Beginning in the second year, students register for 3-12 hours of Non-Topical Research (NTR) courses ENGL 9998 / ENGL 9999), for a total of 30 NTR units. The precise course rubric and number of hours varies, but in every case these additional credit hours bring the total per semester up to 12. It is important to register accurately for these hours; please see the chart of MA/PhD enrollment patterns for the correct sequence of NTR courses.


Students are strongly advised to stay current with their work and to complete all courses within the time allotted. With the written agreement of the instructor, however, students may be given a grade of "Incomplete" in one course each semester. According to GSAS policy, outstanding work must then be completed by the end of the following semester, after which remaining incompletes automatically default to permanent Fs. Agreements between instructors and students regarding incompletes should include a specific due date and be placed on file with the Graduate Office. Students with one or more F's may find their registration blocked by the Graduate School and lose their teaching assignments. One or more Fs may also cause the Graduate School to suspend a student's funding. In no case may a student with incomplete coursework sit for the PhD oral examination.

Foreign Language Requirement

The Department requires that the candidate demonstrate either mastery of one foreign language or proficiency in two.

The candidate may demonstrate mastery

  • by achieving passing grades in two semester-long graduate literature courses offered in the foreign language itself (not in translation) and taken at the University of Virginia . Such courses may also be counted toward completion of the course requirements for the PhD in English, if they are approved in advance by the Director of Graduate Studies


  • by passing a two-hour examination designed to ascertain the student's ability both to read critical and literary texts in the foreign language (with the aid of a dictionary) and to write discursively in that language.

Proficiency is demonstrated by passing a ninety-minute examination in each language, which is designed to ascertain the student's ability to translate prose with the aid of a dictionary.

The full foreign language requirement for the PhD must be completed before the student takes the doctoral oral examination. It is strongly recommended that students make plans early in graduate school for any extra study (including remedial or other course work) that may be necessary to meet this requirement. Eligibility for dissertation fellowships depends on completion of all requirements other than the dissertation.

Special Requirements for Medievalists

Preparation for writing a dissertation in medieval literature requires at least one course in Old English. The faculty strongly encourages study of Latin and other medieval European languages, and it admires the acquisition of further languages from other continents. In this spirit, medievalists are required to pass two exams at either proficiency or mastery level: 1. an exam in Latin, 2. an exam in another language useful to the dissertation work, whether Old French, Arabic, Old Norse, Middle High German, Greek, or any other chosen in consultation with the faculty chair of the medieval area. A student may choose to substitute a graduate course in the original language and literature for either exam requirement above, so long as a B grade or better is earned.

Oral Examination

The candidate should secure a copy of the application form for the oral examination either from this website or from the Graduate Office. This form should be filed initially by May 1 of the second year to indicate the two areas for examination. Then, in consultation with faculty and after a summer's directed reading, the student should compile balanced and comprehensive reading lists consisting of about forty-six works in each of two areas: historical Period and additional research and teaching Field.  Since the period list is intended to consolidate general mastery, it ought not to be narrowly tailored in line with particular thesis plans.  The reading lists must be approved by the appropriate faculty members and submitted by September 15, together with the application form, to the Director of Graduate Studies, who assigns two faculty examiners. The Graduate Office will then contact the examiners to arrange a two-hour exam, typically late in the fall of the third year. Students are responsible for informing examiners and the Graduate Office of minor emendations in the lists.

Dissertation Prospectus

PhD Committee:  As soon as possible after passing the orals, students secure three faculty members' agreement to serve on a committee for the dissertation project.  In most cases, this committee will consist of one director and two readers.

Preparation:  As part of the ENGL 9995 Dissertation Seminar, and in consultation with the dissertation committee, the candidate spends spring of the third year preparing a prospectus of 5-7 pages, plus an ample bibliography (of which fifteen entries are annotated).  The candidate is advised to think of the prospectus as belonging to the genre of the grant application, with a proposed outline of chapters and a clear statement of the place the proposed work will fill amidst other studies.

Approval of the Prospectus: In exchanges with each member of the dissertation committee, the prospectus is rejected, sent back for revisions, or finally approved.  At this time the committee and candidate should agree on an explicit plan for review and revision going forward; for example, committee members who are not the director may specify that they will read chapters only after one revision, or that members will take turns with first readings. A good target-date for securing committee approval is May or June of the student's third year, with October 1 the final acceptable date for securing all members' approval; a hard copy of every accepted prospectus with completed prospectus-approval form should be brought to the Graduate Office for filing, also by Oct. 1. Teaching beyond the fourth year and consideration for dissertation fellowships are contingent on timely submission of an approved prospectus.

Thesis Presentation

Within one calendar year of the approval of the dissertation prospectus, the student gives a forty-minute talk based on the dissertation to an audience of faculty and graduate students. A typical presentation begins with a concise outline of the project as a whole, followed by an illustrative excerpt taken from a single chapter. The talk is followed by a question and answer period. Neither an examination nor a defense, this is an occasion for students to share their scholarship in a formal venue, to obtain more varied reaction to it than their committee can provide, and to practice the kind of presentation usually demanded by a job talk. Presenters should prepare for this event well in advance by consulting with committee members and, if they wish, with the Director of Graduate Studies.

Preparing to Submit the Dissertation

After passing the oral examination and making the thesis presentation, the student may submit the dissertation for final approval at any time within the period set by the Graduate School (i.e., seven years from the commencement of graduate studies). If the dissertation has not been completed within this time limit, the student may, with the written approval of the Director of Graduate Studies, petition the Dean of the Graduate School for an extension. In form, the dissertation should observe the stipulations of The MLA Style Manual, current edition. Deadlines and procedures for applying for a degree and submitting the dissertation, together with a sample title-page, may be found on the Graduate School web site, or on a sheet of guidelines which may be obtained from 438 Cabell Hall. Students should also obtain a Final Defense Form and four copies of the Doctoral Thesis Rubric, to be signed by committee members upon the completion of the defense and returned to the English Department graduate secretary.

Defense of the Dissertation

The student should leave ample time (no less than three weeks) between submission of the dissertation and the date of the defense. Scheduled by the candidate, the one-hour defense involves the three English department members of the dissertation committee and one “outside” member from another department at the University of Virginia . The director of the dissertation serves as chair. At the defense, students are asked to explain the central arguments and theoretical underpinnings of their project, to identify its contributions to the field, and to answer questions posed by the four committee members. Should the candidate fail either oral or written examination, the Department will reject the dissertation until it has been appropriately revised and the thesis successfully defended at a later date.

Schedule of Progress

Here we describe the standard schedule of progress for doctoral students (revised schedule, effective fall 2013). Failure to meet the deadlines may result in the suspension of a student's financial support (fellowship and/or teaching). A student in most cases may resume that support after a year if the requirement has been met in the meantime.

  • First year. Take three specified-content courses in both semesters, in addition to ENCR 8100 in the fall. Full-time students should enroll for a total of 12 hours each semester, consisting of NTR (Non-Topical Research) hours along with hours of specified-content courses; typically a second-term first-year student will enroll for 3 specified-content courses of 3 hours apiece and 3 hours of an NTR "course," which in other terms may involve more hours. Students should concentrate on fulfilling distribution requirements, while also contemplating the eventual choice of an area of specialization. Students who have not yet met the foreign language requirement should make plans for any necessary language study.

  • Second year. Take three courses in both semesters (and register each semester for NTR course ENGL 9998). Students should complete the distribution requirements. PhD students in this year normally teach writing courses in conjunction with a required pedagogy seminar.  By the end of the fourth semester, students should complete the language requirement and identify two areas for their oral exam.

  • Third year. Fall : Sit in on one graduate-level course (form provided) and register for twelve hours of NTR course ENGL 9998; submit approved oral exam lists by October 1, and schedule the oral for late fall. Students who do not take the examination before the end of this academic year will risk losing fellowship and teaching support for the next. Students who fail one or both sections of the exam will not have their support suspended, but must be re-examined in the failed area(s), typically before the spring break.  PhD students in this year normally assist in one of the large undergraduate lecture courses (surveys, Shakespeare or The Literature of the South.  Spring: Take ENGL 9995 (the Dissertation Seminar), sit in on one graduate-level course (form provided), and register for nine hours of ENGL 9998. Teach one course. During the third year, students form a dissertation committee (director and two readers), with a view to having an approved 5-7 page prospectus with annotated bibliography, ideally by May or June, and at latest by Oct. 1 of the student's fourth year.

  • Fourth year. Fall: By Oct. 1 at latest, students need their dissertation prospectus approved by a chosen dissertation committee.  Register for twelve hours of NTR course ENGL 9998. Students become eligible to design their own introductory literature seminar (ENLT).  Subject to departmental needs, fourth-year students and third-year transfer-students may teach two courses in the fall semester to free the spring for work on the dissertation.  For bookkeeping reasons, students must teach at least one course in the fall of the fourth year.  Spring: Register for twelve hours of NTR course ENGL 9999.  Students should continue work on the dissertation and consider going on the academic job market in the following fall-term. A standard expectation is that every student will have a full chapter of the dissertation complete by the end of fourth year; even earlier completion will aid further progress and put students in better position to seek supplementary grants.

  • Fifth year. Register each semester for twelve hours of ENGL 9999.  Students receive a non-teaching dissertation fellowship for the year. Within approximately one year of having an approved prospectus, students give a formal talk based on the dissertation for an audience of students and faculty. Successful job applicants should make every effort to complete the dissertation and defend it.  For a May graduation, the dissertation must be defended and submitted to the Graduate School in final form by May 1.

  • Sixth year and following. Students who are making satisfactory progress on the dissertation are generally offered teaching assignments (but no fellowship support) in the sixth year; depending on availability, students may be awarded teaching assignments in the seventh year.  Each year, the Dean of Arts and Sciences and the English Department fund the Shannon Fellowship: a one-year teaching lectureship awarded to a newly minted Virginia PhD in English with faculty status and benefits.

Job Placement

Academic Placement: In the spring before the academic year in which they expect to finish their dissertations, doctoral candidates who plan to pursue academic careers should begin preparing to enter the job market. The departmental Placement Director works with job candidates to assemble their dossiers, compose their letters of application, and prepare a representative sample of their writing for prospective employers. Such preliminary work should be completed by the end of September, when the Modern Language Association's Job Information List appears. Later in the year, the Placement Director helps candidates to prepare for interviews, which are normally conducted at the MLA convention in December. (The Department offers grants of $150 to defray the expenses of job candidates who have secured MLA interviews.)

Non-academic placement: Few academics can remember a time when every recipient of the PhD could expect to find a job in a college or university. The increasing economic stress under which higher education now labors means that some degree recipients may ultimately work outside the academy--for example, in publishing, in secondary education, in public service, in the information industry, and indeed in all fields where the ability to gather and analyze information and present the results in clearly written form is highly valued. A number of PhD candidates now make work in such fields their first choice. For those who do, the Modern Language Association can assist with various resources, including job counseling at the annual convention. University Career Services is also available to help University of Virginia graduate students with non-academic placement.

Leave of Absence

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences does not recognize leave of absence for a student.  If a student needs time away from the program, the student is encouraged to register as a non-resident in order to preserve continuous eligibility for the resumption of studies.  Students should discuss the need for time away from the program with the Director of Graduate Studies before making a decision, as they may forfeit the fellowship and teaching support that have been earmarked for them during the originally offered term of doctoral study.

The information contained on this website is for informational purposes only.  The Undergraduate Record and Graduate Record represent the official repository for academic program requirements. These publications may be found at

5 secrets to surviving (and thriving in) a PhD program

A PhD candidate shares the lessons he’s learned preparing his dissertation and publishing research along the way

By Aijaz A. Shaikh     Posted on 25 June 2015

Over the last three years, I have been progressing steadily through my doctoral studies program. I have found the path to success is never very simple or straight-forward. In fact, pursuing a doctoral qualification requires absolute devotion, consistency, organization and, above all, a systematic approach that advances or contributes to new knowledge. I have drafted my own how-to handout to convey a set of secrets that, if followed properly, might increase your chances of surviving your doctoral studies.

To put it simply, these practical secrets are aimed at reducing fear and discomfort, helping you complete your course work on time, and guiding you to produce a set of good scientific publications that will secure funding and ensure a productive future career path. These suggestions might also be applicable to you if you’re working on a master’s thesis.

Before I present my suggestions, it is important to reinforce to newly admitted and aspiring doctoral candidates that doctoral study plays a significant role in improving scientific research. Another important point is that the primary responsibility for the management of a doctoral dissertation project lies with the student. The supervisor should be considered a facilitator, motivator or guide. Nevertheless, the supervisor (or your research advisor) is a person with whom you need to interact regularly for four or five crucial years of your life and who will have a critical influence on your research design, output and almost everything you do.

Secret 1: Start writing during the initial stages of your doctoral program.

A well begun is half done — Aristotle (Politics, 350 BC)

The essence of every doctoral program is to produce a few high-quality manuscripts for publication. Doctoral students should start writing their first dissertation article as soon as possible after finalizing their dissertation plan. Different avenues are available where students can explore and write without leaving the comfort of their university. For example, a qualitative method approach will help save time and also deliver a manuscript for publishing more quickly. After all, a dissertation can follow a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed approach.

You should start writing quickly because doctoral course work, teaching and evaluation assignments, social and family obligations can all interfere with the writing schedule. Hence, during the doctoral program, it is advisable to engage eloquently with study, work, home and community. Figure 1 illustrates a tentative flow diagram of a doctoral studies program pursued over four years. The first year is crucial and therefore reserved to progress both research and course work. The second year is, however, considered course intensive. During the third year students are advised to concentrate fully on their research work. The fourth and final year is also research intensive with a balanced focus on completing the research work and the finalization of the dissertation before the public defense.

Another important aspect of early writing that I found is the selection of a possible outlet or target journal for your paper. An early selection will benefit you in different ways. For instance, you should try to include citations from the papers published in the target journal.

Secret 2: Build networks and collaborations.

Of the many paths to success, none can be walked alone — Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams (Harvard Business Review, 2014)

Doctoral studies, especially in the field of management and social sciences, are increasingly considered to be interdisciplinary and cross-cultural, which means that a doctoral candidate is most unlikely to make progress and effectively complete a doctoral program alone. A healthy set of networks, associations, and research collaboration with other individuals and professional organizations is key to success. These personal and professional networking and collaboration opportunities provide several benefits, such as facilitating information sharing, identifying new research opportunities, and enhancing your understanding of the developments and innovations taking place in their field of specialization. Ask yourself, “How can I create effective networking or research collaboration to facilitate publication and the completion of my doctoral program on time?”

There are different avenues available to your personal network. Among the most productive is attending conferences and doctoral courses outside the university or the country of study. On research collaborations, I would suggest both intra- and inter-institutional collaborations — that is, fostering research collaboration across sectors and among individuals, universities, and groups; or through joining university-based interdisciplinary research groups. Collaboration initiatives like these can be advanced by working with researchers on co-authored publications.

Secret 3: Realize the importance of theory and literature.

Significant research projects cannot be performed without first understanding the theory and literature in the field. — David N. Boote and Penny Beile, Educational Researcher, 2005)

It is essential for doctoral students constructing their research paper to develop a sound theoretical knowledge. In my opinion, the importance of theoretical expertise in the field of specialization is indispensable. Consequently, having a thorough, sophisticated and sound theoretical knowledge is the foundation and inspiration for substantial useful research. Therefore, any doctoral student who ignores the central role of the literature review will weaken the quality of their research and disadvantage themselves. In their 2005 article “Scholars Before Researchers: On the Centrality of the Dissertation Literature review in Research Preparation,” Dr. David N. Boote and Dr. Penny Beile provided a highly useful prescription. The authors argued that “good” research is good because it advances our collective understanding. Therefore, in order to advance collective understanding, a doctoral student needs to understand the historical aspects of theory and research (i.e., what has been done before), the strengths and weaknesses of existing studies, and what is and what is not within the scope of the investigation. In essence, a doctoral student may not be able to deliver good research without first understanding the theory or literature in the field of specialization.

Here, doctoral students must understand that a review of the past literature is an essential part of every empirical research assignment and it is also the main focus of the peer review process. That process (read Secret 5 for details) occurs when the manuscript is submitted for publishing and it is reviewed by at least two reviewers for the target journal. The feedback provided by the reviewers usually decides the fate of the manuscript, although they may on occasion be overruled by the editor-in-chief of the journal.

In short, a literature review summarizes and evaluates the state of knowledge or practice on a particular subject (Knopf, 2006) and normally includes books published by academic presses and articles published in academic journals. In addition, popular market reports, feeds, and analysis can also feature in the literature review.

Secret 4: Understand the chemistry of the “scholarly search.”

Given the importance of understanding past theory and literature, the search for the scholarly or scientific articles is obviously very important. My secret for an effective literature search is based on the very simple principle of the “3Rs” — Recent, Relevant and Reliable.

Considering the pace of innovations and developments taking place across various disciplines, the growing interdisciplinary nature of the field of the specializations, and the huge volume of English-language scholarly papers (and other documents), it is vital to understand the importance of searching for and selecting the most recent, relevant and reliable scientific articles for your research projects. According to an estimate (Khabsa and Giles, 2014), more than 114 million English-language scholarly papers are accessible on the web, of which Google Scholar cites nearly 100 million. Of these, at least 27 million (24%) are freely available (open-access articles) that do not require any subscription or payment. What is more intriguing here is that more than 1.5 million peer-reviewed articles are published every year in more than 27,500 peer-reviewed journals across all disciplines.

Broadly speaking, academic search engines have been divided into two major parts; the vertical search and the horizontal search. A vertical search is normally specific journal or scholarly database specific such as ScienceDirect, Wiley, JSTOR, ACM, IEEE, ABI/INFORM, SAGE, Palgrave, Emerald, Inderscience, Springer and so forth. In contrast, a horizontal search is conducted using a single platform such as Google Scholar or the recently introduced Windows Live Academic Search tool to search for peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts, and so forth across different journals and databases. In summary, a good literature review consists of recent, relevant and reliable articles with a high number of citations.

Secret 5: Master the core concepts of impact factor, peer review, contribution to knowledge, and scientific knowledge.

A scientific publication is considered scholarly if it is authored by academic or professional researchers and targeting at an academic or related audience. — Muktikesh Dash (Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation, 2014)

Some intriguing concepts and terms have emerged over time and are now used almost every day in every doctoral program. Among these widely used concepts and terms, the Impact Factor and peer review occupy a significant position. Impact factor (IF) is the traditional and most widely used method for determining the ranking of journals; a journal’s IF is based on the average number of citations its articles receive in the previous two years. Inevitably, academic journals with a higher IF will be assumed to be more important than those with a lower IF, and in academia, where you publish can affect everything from funding opportunities to job prospects. With that in mind, you should prepare your dissertation (or other articles) with an eye to submitting it to a journal with a high IF. You can find the official IF of journals in the Thompson Reuters Journal Citation Reports (JCR).

On the subject of peer review, this process starts after you finalize, proofread, and submit your manuscript for publication. In other words, before being considered for publication, scholarly articles are refereed, or peer-reviewed, by experts in your subject area.

The editor-in-chief of the target journal checks the manuscript to ensure its topic, quality, and relevance aligns with the journal’s aims and scope. If it passes this first test, the editor will send it to at least two anonymous independent reviewers, who will check the manuscript for originality, validity and quality. The advantage of targeting a journal with a strong IF is that even if your manuscript is rejected, the reviewers normally provide detailed feedback on the quality, context and the contents of the manuscript. Carefully incorporating the reviewer feedback into a new version of the manuscript will give it a good chance of being accepted by another journal with a good IF. In summary, it is imperative to select an appropriate and relevant journal for publication. Every journal defines its aims and scope on its official website and has a detailed guide for authors.

Another important term frequently used in the doctoral studies context is the “contribution to knowledge.” Dissertation supervisors (and journal reviewers) generally ask an author to explain the anticipated or expected contribution to knowledge, the practical relevance, or the value added by completing the research project or manuscript. The objective is to present some new or different information or argument in your manuscript than is available from existing studies (Knopf, 2006). In my opinion, conducting a good literature review will uncover hidden patterns, and lead to the discovery of valuable knowledge and information. It should also identify specific research and knowledge gaps and consequently present useful insights and valuable findings.

Similarly, the term “scientific journal articles” is also commonplace in the everyday life of a doctoral student. The research community describes a manuscript as a “scientific work” based on the fact that a scientific research project is primarily meant to discover and report new knowledge, follow a logical sequence, be drafted in an ordinary fashion, be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and be intended to communicate with the scientific community. Clearly, an unpublished work cannot be treated as a scientific work. Scientific work includes research articles, literature reviews, case reports or studies, short communications, and editorials among others.

Dissertation forms and formats

Owing to both practical and theoretical considerations, a few international dissertation forms and formats are in use. My arguments here should not be read as validating any particular traditional form or format. The good news is that during the early stages of a doctoral program, universities allow limited refinements and modifications especially to the form of dissertations (and even to the methodology, such as the choice between qualitative or quantitative approaches) before final approval. Therefore, understanding the potential forms of the dissertation is important for those embarking on a doctoral program.

Among the widely used forms of dissertation, the single study (also known as a monograph) and an article dissertation (consisting of a pre-defined number of articles or manuscripts meeting the scientific criteria and either accepted for publication or deemed worthy of it) are widely used in several universities, especially in Europe. Here is it vital to understand that in either of these dissertation forms, quality and originality are key prerequisites. In other words, the dissertation must contain new scientific findings in the chosen area of research, and avoid unnecessary repetition of widely known textbook knowledge. The underlying goal, as argued by Knopf (2006), is to show that the individuals or the committee who read the dissertation are likely to acquire some new or different information or be presented with an argument not available from existing studies. In the last decade, a majority of universities have come to encourage the article dissertation form. Moreover, the universities have accepted co-authored publications and peer-reviewed conference papers produced by doctoral candidates.

Paltridge (2002) described four different types of dissertation formats (also commonly referred to as dissertation layouts): the traditional simple dissertation format presents a monograph or single study in five chapters, that is, the introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and conclusions. The traditional complex format includes several studies, each presenting its own introduction, methods, results, and conclusions. However, the traditional complex form of dissertation uses a single literature review for all of the studies included; the third format is called the topic-based dissertation. Here the doctoral student or author divides the larger work into chapters that support the rhetorical structure and often do not use separate chapters for the literature review, methodology, results, or conclusions. The compilation of research articles format describes that with various articles written in the format of journal articles, framed with introductory and concluding sections. Each article is treated separately and as a complete entity, and includes its own literature review.

The article dissertation is gaining in popularity in the management and social science fields. The monograph form of dissertation, on the other hand, is generally considered easy to complete and is gaining popularity in other fields such as education. Considering the increasing popularity of the article dissertation, most of my suggestions discussed below relate particularly to that form, but they can be equally beneficial for those who opt for other forms of dissertation.


  • Boote, D. N., & Beile, P. (2005). “Scholars Before Researchers: On the Centrality of the Dissertation Literature review in Research Preparation,” Educational Researcher, 34(6), 3-15.
  • Dash, M. (2014). “Where Should I Publish My Scholarly Research Article?” Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation, 1(4), 00022.
  • Groysberg, B., & Abrahams, R. (2014). “Manage Your Work, Manage Your Life,” Harvard Business Review, 58-66.
  • Knopf, J. W. (2006). “Doing a literature review,” PS: Political Science & Politics, 39(01), 127-132.
  • Khabsa M., & Giles C.L. (2014). “The Number of Scholarly Documents on the Public Web,” PLOS ONE 9(5): e93949.
  • Paltridge, B. (2002). Thesis and dissertation writing: An examination of published advice and actual practice. English for Specific Purposes, 21, 125-143.

Elsevier Connect Contributor 

Aijaz A. Shaikh is a doctoral candidate in marketing at the Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics in Finland. He earned his MSc from the Hanken School of Economics in Finland and has more than 15 years of professional, teaching, and research experience. His primary research interests include consumer behaviour, mobile banking, Internet banking, payment systems, Innovative Marketing Communication Channels, social media, and survey research. He has published in the Elsevier journals Computers in Human Behavior and Telematics and Informatics and other refereed journals such as the Journal of Financial Services Marketing and the International Journal of Electronic Finance.

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