Robert Moses Middle School Homework Network

YPP was founded and continues to conduct its work in the spirit of Ella Baker.

“In order for us as poor and oppressed people to become a part of a society that is meaningful, the system under which we now exist has to be radically changed. This means that we are going to have to learn to think in radical terms. I use the term radical in its original meaning—getting down to and understanding the root cause. It means facing a system that does not lend itself to your needs and devising means by which you change that system. That is easier said than done. But one of the things that has to be faced is, in the process of wanting to change that system, how much have we got to do to find out who we are, where we have come from and where we are going.... I am saying as you must say, too, that in order to see where we are going, we not only must remember where we have been, but we must understand where we have been.”

- Ella Baker

Ella Josephine Baker (December 13, 1903 – December 13, 1986) was an African American civil rights and human rights activist beginning in the 1930s. She worked alongside some of the most famous civil rights leaders of the 20th century, including W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, A. Philip Randolph, and Martin Luther King Jr.  She also mentored then-young civil rights stalwarts such as Diane Nash, Stokely Carmichael, Rosa Parks, and Bob Moses.

Bob Moses, originally from New York, became a field organizing secretary for the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the Mississippi Delta region. He was a key player in pivotal actions such as Freedom Summer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which famously demanded to be seated at the 1964 Democratic National Convention on live television. Moses went on to found the predecessor of the Young People’s Project, the Algebra Project, in 1982, stating that math literacy had replaced voting literacy as the key to full citizenship for Americans from poor and racial/ethnic minority communities.



“The sit-ins hit me powerfully...they looked like I felt.” (Bob Moses)

Awakened by the actions of young people, Bob travels to the South. As field secretary for the SNCC and director of SNCC’s Mississippi Project, he registers black voters and helped to organize sharecroppers to make a historic demand for political access.


“The party of Lincoln is the party of Goldwater, the party of Kennedy is the party of Eastland. Where is our party?” (John Lewis)

 Delegates from the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party make a historic demand to be seated at the Democratic National Convention.


Moses utilizes funds from his MacArthur Genius Fellowship to create the Algebra Project (AP), with a commitment to improving educational and economic access through math literacy.


The Flagway™ Game is developed by Moses.


Moses states repeatedly: “the young people need to get their act together.”

Omo Moses, Taba Moses, Khari Milner, and students from Brinkley Middle School (Java Jackson, April Davis, Melvin Bell, Durrell Moore, Sammie Myers, Antonio Allen, Shameka Shelton, Nate Young, and Demetrica Gorden) begin thinking about a model for a youth-led organization that centers around young people teaching each other mathematics.


YPP is founded in Jackson, Mississippi, by current and former AP students at Brinkley Middle School.

"I would take an idea from the youngest in the group if I thought it was an idea. My role was to facilitate, which didn’t involve leading. My ego wasn’t at stake, at any point, and I had found a greater sense of importance, by being a part of those who were growing. Whatever interests I had were primarily for people living in given situations to realize there was a strength they had within them, and by combined efforts, they could do something about whatever their conditions were that they wanted to see changed, but they first had to know what their conditions were and face the fact that nobody’s gonna do for you, that which you had the power to do and failed to do."

 - Omo Moses, Co-Founder YPP


After spending six years working with the Algebra Project in Oakland, Maisha Moses relocates to Mississippi to develop a training program for YPP.


Mississippi Olive Branch Retreat takes place.


First YPP Summer Training takes place.

15 students from Jackson, MS, spend the summer in Cambridge, MA, training local YPP students to do Math Literacy Work.


The Spring Break Tours begin in Jackson, MS.

MLWs spend their spring break facilitating math literacy workshops. Their visits include: Weldon, NC; Charleston/St. Helena, SC; Washington, DC; Orlando, FL; Savannah/Atlanta, GA; and Birmingham, AL.


YPP launches programs in Chicago during the summer, working with high school students through the Bank One Saturday Scholars Program.


YPP hosts an organizational conference in Miami.

The Program Evaluation & Research Group at Lesley University (Cambridge, MA) publishes a study comparing AP/YPP Brinkley graduates with the general population at Lanier High School in Jackson, Mississippi. The study found that AP/ YPP students: enrolled in 9th and 10th grade mathematics courses at a significantly higher rate; enrolled in college preparatory mathematics courses at twice the rate; and passed state mathematics exams at significantly higher rates.


YPP hosts its first Math Bash at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Quality Education as a Civil Right (QECR) is born:

YPP Jackson students begin working with the AP students from Douglass High School, and community members who were part of the Douglass Coalition in New Orleans to begin organizing around the idea of a Constitutional Amendment guaranteeing all children the right to a high quality education. This culminated in a historic meeting at Howard University in March of 2005 with students, educators, organizers and veterans of the civil rights movement.


YPP receives funding from the National Science Foundation ($2.3 million over five years) to expand programs and support the development of its training program.

Finding Our Folk (FOF) is formed as a student-led response to the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina and the failure of government. Building on a successful tour and film, FOF seeks to preserve New Orleans music and cultural tradition as a tool to engage, inspire, and create change:

“Within a month or so after the storm, Omo Moses and activist leaders from more than 100 organizations met in South Carolina to discuss how they could address the needs of Katrina evacuees. It was here that Moses introduced the idea of "Finding Our Folk."[Chris] Adagbonyin headed up the initiative, and with little money and no concrete direction, he began searching for displaced people living in Jackson. His search led him to Jackson State, where he discovered that people needed to share their sto- ries just as much as they needed other resources. We really just wanted to be a physical presence for people"

- Albert Sykes


YPP opens a Boston office in the Fields Corner, Dorchester, neighborhood, establishing a base for programming in the city.


YPP begins the Flagway™ Campaign, seeking to create a context in communities throughout the country for students to practice and celebrate learning math.

YPP expands to include programming in Petersburg, VA, Miami, FL, and Atlanta, GA.


Algebra Project 25th Anniversary National Conference:

The AP national conference engaged youth and adult participants in facilitated small and large group discussions, working sessions, and interactive activities. The overall goal of the conference was to rigorously evaluate the requirements and strategies needed to create a quality public school education for all students.

Leadership Development Institute - Jim Burruss (from the Hay Group) begins working with young men in YPP to develop their leadership capacity.


YPP Miami is started in August. In its first two years; YPP Miami worked within six elementary schools throughout Miami Dade County.

1st Annual YPP Hamptons Fundraiser is held.

YPP Los Angeles is started within Academia Avance Charter School.

Blowout Consciousness: Brass Band Blowout, Cultural Showcase, Social Justice Networking

The first in a series of cultural showcase and social justice network building events that serve to highlight the creativity and leadership of New Orleans youth while connecting community members with local social justice organizations that offer important information and services, as well as advocacy and empowerment opportunities.

YPP @ Hamilton College is developed by YPP students and serves as a model for engaging colleges students in education and education reform work.


Second Leadership Development Institute is held.

YPP Participants: April, Lekecia, Lori, Maisha, Sharayna, Krystal, Quinn, Selledia YPP partners with Lawrence Community Works to launch Neighbor Circles.

YPP begins a comprehensive strategic planning process supported through a $1.2 million grant from Atlantic Philanthropies.

YPP launches its first Year-End Fundraising Campaign to establish strong support from our communities across the country and raises $60,000.


YPP completes its business plan for enduring social impact. Root Cause indicates YPP is one of a handful of peer-to-peer programs nationally that combines training in math or science with educational advocacy and reform, and may be the only such organization largely founded and conceptualized by African American middle-school students.

YPP sites join local organizing networks and coalitions in Chicago, Mississippi, and Massachusetts: Boston United for Students, Teens Lead the Way Civics Campaign, Massachusetts Coalition to end the Cradle to Prison Pipeline, Youth Jobs Coalition.

YPP relaunches the QECR initiative over the last year and a half, and re-launched it as an organizational project at the SNCC 50th Anniversary. YPP begins the “We The People” tour in conjunction with the release of the book, Quality Education as a Constitutional Right: Creating a Grassroots Movement to Transform Public Schools, visiting 15 communities and universities to date. 


YPP Co-Facilitates National Youth Listening Tour Stops In Jackson, MS, Boston, MA, Ann Arbor, MI, Los Angeles and Chicago, YPP lead roundtable discussions as part of a nine stop National Youth Listening Tour, that sought to open a dialogue with youth from diverse experiences and backgrounds to discuss what it means to create a college-going culture at the family, community, and school level. The tour was lead by Alberto Retana, US Department of Education, Director of Community Engagement.

GB - 2011 YPP began working in-class at The Young Achievers school in Boston around the Flagway curriculum.

LA - 2010-11 YPP began a recovery credit class for Franklin students to earn five class credits by being trained in YPP curriculum and teaming up with Veteran Math Literacy Workers (MLWs) from Academia Avance to provide outreach to Monte Vista.

NY - 2010-2011 With continued support of the NYC DOE 21st Century Fund and The Shelley & Donald Rubin Foundation, YPP has been able to successfully provide another year of programming based out of Boys and Girls HS in Brooklyn.


Newly Developed Theory of Change

"We believe that young people need to imagine their future, develop the confidence and capacity to be architects of it, as well as part of efforts to determine it. Math Literacy work is our entry point for developing young learners, teachers, leaders and organizers."

This figure presents a schematized summary of the key elements of our theory of change with an abbreviated listing of short term and intermediate outcomes. It builds of the implicit assumption that elementary school children who leave the program after two years but do not return for high school – nevertheless will achieve the outcomes targeted for high school students due to their increased competencies and math self-efficacy.

* This diagram was developed through a series of workshops with David Hunter.



Mississippi - 90% of participants (working with 20 Math Literacy Workers) from YPP Saturday workshop improved math scores from one term to the next based on their report cards.

Greater Boston – In 2015, YPP Greater Boston offered programming at the Fletcher Maynard Academy in Cambridge, the Higginson-Lewis and the Mason Schools in Roxbury, in addition to adding a new site, the Dudley Street Charter School also in Roxbury. 

Four MLWs graduated and are now enrolled in college and 1 of the 4 transitioned into a College MLW role with YPP. The GB team hosted two Culminating Events, two open houses, a Math Bash, a Steam Day, and a Coding Camp. In addition, they presented at the NCTM Conference in Boston and The Pittsburgh Colloquium. 

Chicago – In 2015, Chicago employed 15 MLWs and had a higher average in daily attendance (101.1%) and a higher retention rate compared to the average of other non-YPP afterschool control programs. A majority of the Chicago MLWs (90.6%) disclosed that they have gained profound academic and career related skills. 

Michigan – Michigan continued to recruit MLWs from Ypsilanti Community High School, Wayne Memorial High School, John Glenn High School, Romulus High School, Tri-County Educational Center and continues to hold a steady relationship with Marshall Upper Elementary, Adams Upper Elementary, Estabrook School, Key Elementary, Romulus Middle School where they provide outreach. Five MLWs have graduated and three are enrolled in college.


We are thankful for the many partnerships that serve as the driving vehicle for our work.  

The Algebra Project (AP) – YPP continued to partner with AP to implement the Algebra Project in Atlanta Public schools.  Fourteen college students provided in-school support to AP classrooms in 5 middle schools and ran after school programs for thirty 8th graders at two middle schools.  YPP provided coordination and training support for the college studen

Dublin Ireland
In May of 2015 YPP partnered with AP to take the Flagway™ Games to Ireland, and were invited to return in the spring of 2016 by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment to establish Flagway™ as a knowledge based sport.

Education Testing Service (ETS) – ETS is a collaborator with YPP on a proposal to the National Science Foundation to implement, research, and evaluate a comprehensive YPP program in three schools in Greater Boston, Jackson, and Chicago.  If funded, ETS will host annual research gatherings at its conference campus in Princeton, NJ.  


YPP welcomeD Naama Lewis to the National Team as the Director of Training. Naama has a long history with YPP starting as a CMLW in 2003 and being a key player in YPP’s curriculum and module development. We believe her personal experience with YPP along with her educational background in pure mathematics, math education, biomechanical engineering, and statistics is a perfect fit to meet the training needs of YPP. 

Now a powerful revisionist tide is running in. New York has the feel of a boomtown — highways clogged, subways crowded, luxury condo towers rising — and an influential band of historians and planners have argued that Moses, who served as chief of public authorities and confidant to a half-century’s worth of New York’s mayors and governors, had much to do with the rise of the city and little to do with its (temporary) fall.

This revisionist project has taken form in much-praised exhibitions at the Museum of the City of New York (through May 28) and the Queens Museum of Art (through May 27), and at the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery at Columbia University, where a Moses exhibit closed three weeks ago. The revisionists mounted a symposium — to which Mr. Caro says he was at first not invited — and Norton earlier this year published “Robert Moses and the Modern City,” a 336-page collection of essays with a revisionist theme running throughout. All would restore Moses, whose cracked bust is displayed on the cover of “The Power Broker,” to his pedestal as a master builder.

Argument Without End

That Moses was highhanded, racist and contemptuous of the poor draws no argument even from the most ardent revisionists. But his grand vision and iron will, they say, seeded New York with highways, parks, swimming pools and cultural halls, from the Belt Parkway to Lincoln Center, and thus allowed the modern city to flower.

Looking forward, the revisionists assert a broader claim: A Moses-like vision is needed to guard against another slide toward obsolescence. The transformations of Williamsburg, the Atlantic Yards tract in Brooklyn and Long Island City in Queens are harbingers of this assertive mood.

“ ‘The Power Broker’ was an important book, but after three decades an intellectual logjam had to be broken,” said Kenneth T. Jackson, a professor of history at Columbia University and the editor of The Encyclopedia of New York City. “Moses built with quality and a remarkable honesty, and we need a return of some of that today.

“The city is trying to change now,” said Professor Jackson, who with Hilary Ballon, an architectural historian at Columbia, edited the new collection of essays about Moses. “We need to help that along.”

These arguments strike partisans of Mr. Caro as blinkered. Thousands of people spent decades advocating for mass transit and parkland, and waging war against stadiums and projects seen as too dense and too weighted toward the rich. “The Power Broker” is often their touchstone.

“This is precisely the wrong time to deify Moses,” said Theodore Kheel, the retired labor mediator who at 92 is one of the few New Yorkers who recall going toe to toe with Moses over a 1965 proposal to double bridge and tunnel tolls and use the revenue to subsidize the subway fare. “He was hostile to mass transit and hostile to poor New Yorkers.”

So two visions of New York collide, each borne of a different cultural moment. If the arguments about the book and the man are testy and tinged with recriminations and charges of incomplete scholarship, how could it be otherwise? Historical understanding is contingent, contentious and rarely at a remove from the broader culture. In this “that was yesterday’s interpretation” age, the only surprise may be that “The Power Broker” has gone so long without a challenge.

“There is no ‘definitive’ study of any prominent biographical figure,” said the historian Robert Dallek, author of an acclaimed two-volume biography of Lyndon Johnson and a recent book examining the relationship between President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. He salutes Mr. Caro’s achievement even as he finds the wave of revisionist thinking inevitable.

“Historians still debate Lincoln,” Mr. Dallek says. “History is a construction of the contemporary mood and culture.”

History, as the Dutch historian Pieter Geyl said, is argument without end. So it is with reconsideration of Moses, whose legacy still stirs debate in this most disputatious of cities.

The Master Builder’s Case

Disgorging a rapid and perfectly formed stream of nouns and verbs, Professor Ballon recently gave a visitor a quick tour of the Moses exhibit at the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery. The show’s curator, she genuflected, briefly, toward Mr. Caro’s book.

“It’s a mesmerizing narrative,” she said. “Caro stimulated a great discussion, and there’s a human truth there: Powerful people become undone by their power.”

Then came the rhetorical pivot.

“But the book is far from definitive and misjudges history,” Professor Ballon said. “It’s absolutely evident to me that ‘The Power Broker’ is symptomatic of a time and a zeitgeist. In the community of historians, there’s been brewing a sense of discontent.”

The revisionist case for Moses has percolated for nearly two decades and goes something like this: He was a visionary who gazed upon the city and region from the perspective of an eagle. He saw wastelands that would become parks, bridges that would span rivers and bays, and a necklace of highways and parkways that would weave the city and region into one.

He tore down tenements to make way for giant clumps of middle-income housing, including Kips Bay and Stuyvesant Town on the East Side of Manhattan. And that’s not to count mammoth icons like Lincoln Center and the United Nations, and the expansion of the campuses of the Pratt Institute and Fordham and New York Universities.

Where else can one find barrier-island public beaches — Jacob Riis Park, Jones Beach and Robert Moses State Park — within hailing distance of a cacophonous world capital?

Moses was a creature of his time; the revisionists emphasize this. By midcentury, planners wrestled with suburbanization, decaying urban cores and the dominance of the car. Chicago, Boston, Los Angeles: Each claimed its own power broker.

But few were so powerful, visionary and devious. Decade after decade, Moses helped New York gobble up a lion’s share of federal money, and before anyone could raise much of a protest, he spent it.

That there was a human cost, that half a million people were displaced and neighborhoods broken to realize his vision, is beyond question. But, revisionists ask, does history hold a brief against Shah Jahan, who set thousands laboring for 20 years to build the Taj Mahal? Is the Cathedral of Chartres testament to grandiosity or grandeur?

“My hunch is that the more we distance ourselves, we will forget the costs,” Professor Ballon said, “just as we look at ancient monuments and forget the labor that was expended in building them.”

The sands of time slowly covered Moses’ more egregious tracks. He built his most elegant playgrounds for the white and comfortable, but because of demographic shifts, some now are thick with black, Asian and Latino children. Orchard Beach and Riis Park long ago became working-class havens.

“It was totally inadvertent, but Moses’ legacy is that he created great beaches for poor people,” said Mitchell Moss, a professor of urban policy and planning at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University.

A whiff of overstatement can cloud the revisionist perspective. It’s argued, for example that Moses’ racism was a product of his time. He was “a pragmatist, cavalier as too many were in his day about racial prejudice,” the essayist Phillip Lopate wrote in a recent article for The New York Times, and so was more intent on building apartments than on objecting to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company’s desire to bar blacks from renting in Stuyvesant Town.

Professor Jackson also challenges two allegations in “The Power Broker”: One is that Moses chilled the water at a swimming pool in East Harlem based on his belief that blacks disliked cold water. The other is that Moses built low bridges to keep buses — ostensibly carrying black passengers — away from Jones Beach.

But in the collection of essays, Martha Biondi, a professor of African-American history at Northwestern University, concludes that Moses was an enthusiastic and “leading supporter” of a whites-only policy at Stuyvesant Town even as civic leaders urged integration.

As for the pool-cooling, Mr. Caro interviewed Moses’ associates on the record (“You can pretty well keep them out of any pool if you keep the water cold enough,” he quotes Sidney M. Shapiro, a close Moses aide, as saying). Such accounts, Professor Biondi says, gain “credence from the very well-documented history of racial discrimination and exclusion that surrounded so many of Moses’ undertakings.”

To reappraise a man so complex as Moses, and a book so ambitious as “The Power Broker,” demands great discipline. Setting aside one’s cultural lens is not easy.

“When I read of the heroic building of the 1930s, I brought to mind the stalled projects of our day,” Professor Ballon said. “It’s easy enough now to realize that New York hasn’t fallen down, as Caro thought. Look at this resurgent city. It’s spectacular.”

Caro (Un)bound

Ask Mr. Caro about the Cross Bronx Expressway and the price paid for progress, and the author cannot contain himself. This neatly attired man with hair still more dark than gray leans forward and scoops up a dogeared copy of “The Power Broker,” which sits on his desk like the King James Bible of municipal history. (It was at the time the largest book Random House could physically print.)

“Turn to Page 19,” he says as he turns the pages. “When I speak, I’m imprecise.”

So he quotes from his book:

“To build his highways, Moses threw out of their homes 250,000 persons — more people than lived in Albany or Chattanooga, or in Spokane, Tacoma, Duluth, Akron, Baton Rouge, Mobile, Nashville or Sacramento. He tore out the hearts of a score of neighborhoods.”

He slaps the book shut and closes his eyes to concentrate on his words.

“Robert Moses bent the democratic processes and the city to his will,” Mr. Caro says. “There were lots of people who didn’t want to gouge a highway through East Tremont, and they couldn’t stop him.”

Mr. Caro fluctuates between two poles. He is immersed in a multivolume study of Lyndon Johnson — the first three volumes are in print; he typed each on his Smith Corona — and he wishes that “The Power Broker,” now in its 44th printing, could stand on its own against the critics. “It’s a compliment, really, that they are still debating my book as if it was new,” he says.

But impatience wells up. Mr. Caro, a lifelong New Yorker, declined to participate in the revisionists’ forums on Moses; he says his only invitation came too late and as an afterthought. But he gave a speech on Moses at the Museum of the City of New York in February. And he follows up an interview with a reporter with phone calls every few days, poking at the revisionists. “I understand each age looks through its own prism,” he said a few days ago. “But the revisionists are not coming to grips with this man.”

Mr. Caro came to his epic pursuit of Moses as a young newspaper reporter in the 1960s, a moment when a national revulsion was growing against the depredations of urban renewal and unaccountable officials.

“The Power Broker” opens with an image of Moses as the progressive dreamer. His first decades in public life are a reformist blur of building pools and creating parks from wasteland. His understanding of finance is complex, his manipulation of the levers of power nimble, and Mr. Caro gives him his due.

Mr. Caro peers at a reporter — he wants to be very clear this isn’t a book about an evil man. “It’s about a genius who was blinded by his own arrogance,” he says.

Inevitably, power corrupts. Moses gouges highways through neighborhoods, secures the loyalty of venal politicians and hoards bridge and tunnel receipts, starving subways and schools. His dreams grow gargantuan: He envisions a mammoth highway stretching from Staten Island through Brooklyn and Fire Island to Montauk Point. Two bridges would gird Long Island Sound, and a highway would slash into Greenwich Village.

It was never enough. SoHo, TriBeCa and the meatpacking district are the city’s hottest neighborhoods; Moses wanted to flatten them. Community opposition killed his final project, the $1.7 billion superhighway proposal known as Westway. Opponents took the money and poured much of it into a transit system then near collapse.

“People remember Westway as a symbol of how we couldn’t build,” said Gene Russianoff, founder of the Straphangers Campaign, who says “The Power Broker” persuaded him to take up a career in public advocacy. “For me, it is a symbol of how David held off Goliath and saved the subways.”

Mr. Caro can be a careful guardian of his own flame. He has a legion of admirers, but some say his book overstates the dominance of Moses and understates the constraints on his behavior.

For all his highways and failures to extend light-rail lines to eastern Queens and Long Island, Moses did not turn the city into Los Angeles East. “I’m left thinking that it’s not just light and then darkness,” said Rick Bell, executive director of the New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects. “His legacy is more complicated.”

Mr. Caro insists he has always seen Moses as a complex character. But he shakes his head at the notion that New Yorkers pine for a new master builder.

“I don’t think there is a cultural shift, not at all,” Mr. Caro said. “The culture would be repelled to see his methods.”

He caught himself and added: “The great problem posed by Robert Moses is whether this city can build what’s needed while adhering to democratic principles. We’re about to find out if we’ve solved that problem.”

The truth is, New York never was so paralyzed as the revisionists imagine. Rebirth began even as the metropolis fell. In the 1980s city officials poured billions of dollars into rebuilding vast swaths of working-class housing in Harlem, Brooklyn and the Bronx. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority renovated the subways, and the 1990s saw the privately financed construction of a tennis center with acres of public courts in Queens. There are the capitalism-on-hallucinogens makeover of Times Square, the greening of the West Side waterfront and maybe even the Second Avenue subway, along with refurbished parks and pools across the city.

Whatever his manifold faults, Moses nursed a faith in the power of government to throw up public works. He was a public servant with the temperament of a czar.

And a book by his most eloquent critic ensures his immortality.

“Caro wrote a grand tale and made Moses famous,” Professor Jackson said. “As much as Moses detested Caro, ‘The Power Broker’ has become his monument.”

Correction: May 13, 2007

An article last Sunday about Robert Caro and his biography of Robert Moses referred incorrectly to Co-op City, one of the middle-income housing projects that Moses developed. Co-op City, in the Bronx, was built on the site of the defunct Freedomland amusement park; Moses did not tear down tenements to make room for it.

Correction: May 27, 2007

An article on May 6 about Robert Caro and his biography of Robert Moses referred imprecisely to Moses' role in Westway, a 1970s proposal for a superhighway and park development on the West Side of Manhattan. Although Moses proposed early versions of what would become the Westway superhighway, and although he did not agree with some Westway opponents' view that money for the proposal should be diverted to public transit, he spoke against Westway after he had lost his last public authority chairmanship.

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