Bhakra Dam is a concretegravity dam on the Sutlej River in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh in northern India. The dam forms the Gobind Sagar reservoir.
The dam, located at a gorge near the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh of height 226 m. The length of the dam (measured from the road above it) is 518.25 m and the width is 9.1 m. Its reservoir known as "Gobind Sagar" stores up to 9.34 billion cubic metres of water. The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km2. In terms of quantity of water, it is the third largest reservoir in India, the first being in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cu m and second Nagarjunasagar Dam.
Described as "New Temple of Resurgent India" by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, the dam attracts tourists from all over India. Bhakra dam is 15 km from Nangal city and 20 km from Naina Devi town.
Nangal Dam is another dam in Punjab downstream of Bhakra Dam. However, sometimes both the dams together are called Bhakra-Nangal Dam though they are two separate dams.
The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose dams were among the earliest river valley development schemes undertaken by India after independence though the project had been conceived long before India became a free nation. The agreement for this project had been signed by the then Punjab Revenue Minister, Sir Chhotu Ram in November 1944 with Raja of Bilaspur and finalised the project plan on 8 January 1945. Preliminary works commenced in 1946. Construction of the dam started in 1948; Jawaharlal Nehru poured the first bucket of concrete into the dry riverbed of the Sutlej on 17 November 1955, as a symbolic initiation of the work. Addressing a gathering there, he said, "This is a gift to the people of India and to the future generations from the workers who built this dam", calling for "rais[ing] a memorial" at the dam "in honour" of the workers. The dam was completed by the end of 1963. Successive stages were completed by the early 1970s.
Initially, the construction of the dam was started by Sir Louis Dane, the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. But the project got delayed and was restarted soon after independence under the chief architect Rai Bahadur Kunwar Sen Gupta. It was financed entirely by the union government. The Control Board for the project included representatives from union government, and of the governments of Punjab, Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan, Bilaspur and Himachal Pradesh. The organisation evolved for the purpose of design and construction was divided into three parts. The Designs Directorate provided the designs and drawings. The Construction and Plant Design Directorate was to look after its execution and installing of the plant, while the Directorate of Inspection and Control ensured that the specifications are accorded to safety requirements were met.
In October 1963, at the ceremony to mark the dedication of the Bhakra–Nangal project to the nation, Prime Minister Nehru said, "This dam has been built with the unrelenting toil of man for the benefit of mankind and therefore is worthy of worship. May you call it a Temple or a Gurdwara or a Mosque, it inspires our admiration and reverence". On 22 October 2013, the Government of India approved the release of a commemorative stamp to mark the 50th anniversary of the Bhakra Dam. As how successful India was at that time that it was the only dam in Asia which could produce 1500 MW power and now in China Three Gorges Dam takes Control over all the dams and generate around 22,500 MW power i.e more than 15 nuclear power stations .
Also these are multipurpose projects.
The dam, at 741 ft (226 m), is one of the highest gravity dams in the world (compared to USA's largest Oroville Dam at 770 ft). The 166 km² Gobindsagar Reservoir, named after Guru Gobind Singh, is created by this dam which is the third largest reservoir in India the first being Indira Sagar Dam and second Nagarjunasagar Dam. The river Satluj used to flow through a narrow gorge between two hills, Naina Devi ki dhar and Ramgarh ki dhar, and the site was chosen to dam the river. The large map http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/india/nh-43-03.jpg shows the location of the original Bhakra village that was submerged in the lake formed behind the dam.
Bhakra dam was part of the larger multipurpose Bhakra Nangal Project whose aims were to prevent floods in the Sutluj-Beas river valley, to provide irrigation to adjoining states and also to provide hydro-electricity. It also became a tourist spot for the tourists during later years because of it huge size and uniqueness.
It also has four spillway gates that are only used when the reservoir exceeds the maximum allowed level.
Nangal dam is a barrage dam that is 10 km downstream of Bhakra dam
The dam holds excess waters during the monsoon and provides a regulated release during the year . It also prevents damage due to monsoon floods. The dam provides irrigation to 10 million acres (40,000 km²) of fields in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.
Water flows from Bhakra Dam downstream Nangal dam where it is controlled and released into Nangal Hydel Channel that later becomes Bhakra Main Line after Ganguwal and Kotla power plants. The Bhakra main line is a canal that mostly supplies irrigation water to the state of Haryana.
Bhakra Dam has ten power generators with five on each side. Generators for the left power house were originally supplied by Hitachi, Japan and upgraded to the present capacity by Sumitomo, Hitachi and Adritz. Generators for the right side were originally supplied by Soviet Union and later upgraded to the present capacity by Russia. The two power houses have a total capacity of 1325 MW. The left power house contain 3 x 108 MW and 2 x 126 MW Francis turbines while the right has 5 x 157 MW.
The power generated at Bhakra Dam is distributed among partner states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and Delhi.
Three additional power plants are on the two canals Nangal Hydel Channel and Anandpur Sahib Hydel Channel that originate from Nangal dam. Their generation capacities are : Ganguwal - 77.65 MW, Kotla - 77.65 MW and Anandpur - 134 MW.
The reservoir of the Dam, Gobind Sagar, homes fishes of different species including endangered Mahseer. Commercial fishing by Local fisherman is also common in Gobind Sagar.
Bhakra Management Board (BMB) was constituted in 1966 for the administration, maintenance and operation of Bhakra Nangal Project from 1 October 1967. It manages the operation of both the dams. Its members are appointed by the government of India and by the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh. Bhakra Management Board was renamed Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) on 15 May 1976 to also manage dams on river Beas. Since then the Bhakra Beas Management Board is engaged in the regulation of the supply of water and power from Bhakra Nangal Project and Beas Projects to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh government.
The Bhakra Beas Management Board regulates, operates and manages Bhakra Dam, Dehar Hyroelectric Project,Pong dam, Ganguwal and Kotla power stations.
Being the fourth largest dam in India after Tehri Dam, it attracts a large number of tourists who visit its reservoir and attractive location. However, for security reasons, visitors to Bhakra-Nangal Dam has been banned since 2009. The distance between the Ganguwal and Bhakra Dam is about 30–35 km.
Displacement of People
The large reservoir created by the dam displaced a large population from the district of Bilaspur. About 371 villages were submerged. After 50 years of its completion, there is still a question of full resettlement of oustees.
Media related to Bhakra Dam at Wikimedia Commons
Bhakra Nangal Project
Bhakra Nangal Project is the joint venture of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan governments. The Bhakra and Nangal, both are the separated dams, but it is described together as the Bhakra-Nangal project.
Objective of Bhakra Nangal Project
At the Bhakra Nangal project has the major objective such as the two dams at Bhakra and Nangal together
- It is projected for provide the irrigation of water
- It is projected for generate the hydro-electricity and
- It is projected for prevent from Sutlej-beas rivers
Both the Bhakra Nangal comprise with great objective for generate facility by making the project of water. The bhakra nangal poject is together provide the relief to the people from problem of water.
Dams became compulsory that time and it was started to make by the governments. After making that dams, it becomes easy for the citizen of the Bhakra and Nangal.
Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal
- Bhakra and Nangal Dams
- Nangal hydel plant
- Power houses and
- Bhakra Canal System
The Bhakra Dam
The Bhakra Dam is the highest dam in India, which is heighted by 226 meters. It is highest being Tehri dam by 260 meters hight.
- Hight of the Bhakra Dam is 226 meter high
- Bhakra Dam is 518 meters long
- Width of the Bhakra Dam is 362 meters
Govind Sagar was the second name of Bhakra dam and it became popular in the place of Bhakra by this name.
Bhakra dam is the third largest reservoir of the India with high storage capacity, which is 9.3 billion cubic meters.
Since independence, planning of the Bhakra dam was started initially because it was more necessary to secure the Indian by making of the dam in India and many of the people can get water facilities and water facility.
In India, the bhakra dam started to made after the independence and in 1963, the first phase of the bhakra dam was completed, which took the great step for people of the area.
The Bhakra dam was made for only to secure the Indian by standing the reservoir and it became successful after independence under the government decision.
At every year, the bhakra dam anniversary celebeated and it is the great anniversary celebration by the government.
On the Golden Jubilee (50th anniversary) of Bhakra Dam was grandly celebrated by the government of India and in this ceremony, the government has also announced commemorative postage stamps on 22nd October 2013.
The Nangal dam
In the state of Punjab, the Nangal dam was constructed, which was on the Sutlej river.
- The downstream of the Nangal dam was about 13kms
- The Nangal dam is long by the 305 meters
- The Nangal dam is highest by the 529 meters
- The Nangal dam wide by the 121 meters
Nangal hydel channel
- The Bhakra project is not locates more away from the Nangal, in fact it is in short distance with the Bhakra hydel channel.
- The Nangal hydel channel is longest by 64km
- The Nangal hydel channel is deepest by 44 meters
- The Nangal hydel channel is supplied water to Bhakra irrigation canals.
Power houses of the Bhakra and Nangal project
The Ganguwal power houses, Kotla power houses, left bank power houses and the right bank power house is the four power house of the Bhakra and it has the combined installed capacity of 1204mw.
The Ganguwal power house at the Ganguwal and other at kotla, both are the power houses have been situated at that place.
Both have the two units of 24mw each and one unit of 29mv
In the Bhakra state, two more power houses with 450mw and 600mw production capacity are situated.
Bhakra canal system
The Bhakra canal system provides facility for the citizen of people by irrigation facility.
The land of the irrigation given by the Bhakra canal system, which was spreads in 27.41 lakhs hectares in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.
In many of the land, the Bhakra canal system spread such as the area of Jalandhar, Ferozpur, Hashinagar, situtraedLudhiana, Ambala, Hissar, Karnal in Punjab and Haryana and Bikaner division of Rajasthan.
The Bhakra Nangal system was situated on the land for control the overwater and uses of water by best way.
It is remarkable achievement of the India by Government of India and it was made during the five year plan scheme from government.
Super vision of the Bhakra and Nangal system
The Bhakra and Nangald system was constructed under the supervision of lieutenant Governor Sir Louis Dane and he delayed the project of Bhakra and Nangal.
It was finally made proper for many facilities in the many states and it results more helpful for the states of the people because it distribute power to several cities.