The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and also in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. The program was originally created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and later expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act.
Role and purpose
According to Title 10, Section 2031 of the United States Code, the purpose of Junior is "to instill in students in [the United States] secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, and personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment." Additional objectives are established by the service departments of the Department of Defense. Under 542.4 of Title 32 (National Defense) of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Department of the Army has declared those objectives for each cadet to be:
- Developing citizenship and patriotism
- Developing self-reliance and responsiveness to all authority
- Improving the ability to communicate well both orally and in writing
- Developing an appreciation of the importance of physical fitness
- Increasing a respect for the role of the U.S. Armed Forces in support of national objectives
- Developing a knowledge of team building skills and basic military skills
- Taking 3–4 years of the course grants cadets the ability to rank higher if they pursue a military career.
Section 524.5 of the CFR National Defense title states in part that JROTC should "provide meaningful leadership instruction of benefit to the student and of value to the Armed Forces. ...Students will acquire: (1) An understanding of the fundamental concept of leadership, military art and science, (2) An introduction to related professional knowledge, and (3) An appreciation of requirements for national security. The dual roles of citizen/soldier and soldier/citizen are studied. ... These programs will enable cadets to better serve their country as leaders, as citizens, and in military service should they enter it. ... The JROTC and NDCC are not, of themselves, officer-producing programs but should create favorable attitudes and impressions toward the Services and toward careers in the Armed Forces."
The military has stated that JROTC will inform young Americans about the opportunities available in the military and "may help motivate young Americans toward military service." A 1999 Army policy memorandum stated that "While not designed to be a specific recruiting tool, there is nothing in existing law that precludes ... facilitating the recruitment of young men and women into the U.S. Army," directing instructors to "actively assist cadets who want to enlist in the military [and] emphasize service in the U.S. Army; facilitate recruiter access to cadets in JROTC program and to the entire student body ... [and] work closely with high school guidance counselors to sell the Army story." In a February 2000 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, the armed service chiefs of staff testified that 30%–50% of graduating JROTC cadets go on to join the military:
- GeneralJames L. Jones, then Commandant of the Marine Corps, testified that the value of the Marine JROTC program "is beyond contest. Fully one-third of our young men and women who join a Junior ROTC program wind up wearing the uniform of a Marine."
- General Eric K. Shinseki, then Chief of Staff of the United States Army, testified that "Our indications are about 30 percent of those youngsters—we don't recruit them, as you know. We are not permitted to do that. But by virtue of the things that they like about that experience, about 30 percent of them end up joining the Army, either enlisting or going on to ROTC and then joining the officer population."
- General Michael E. Ryan, then Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, testified that "almost 50 percent of the folks that go [...] out of the Air Force Junior ROTC go into one of the Services by enlisting or going to ROTC or going to one of the academies."
- AdmiralJay L. Johnson, then Chief of Naval Operations, testified that "Even if the number is only 30 percent, that is a good number. But think about what we get out of the other 70 percent. They have exposure to us. They have exposure to the military. And the challenge of the education mandate that we all share in principals and school counselors and school districts that won't let us in, that is a powerful tool I think to educate whether or not they end up in the service. So it is a long way around saying it is well worth the investment for lots of different reasons."
General Colin Powell said in his 1995 autobiography that "the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of Junior ROTC," but added that "Inner-city kids, many from broken homes, found stability and role models in Junior ROTC."U.S. Congress found in the Recruiting, Retention, and Reservist Promotion Act of 2000 that JROTC and similar programs "provide significant benefits for the Armed Forces, including significant public relations benefits." Former United States Secretary of DefenseWilliam Cohen referred to JROTC as "one of the best recruitment programs we could have."
Five of the seven branches of the Uniformed services of the United States maintain a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, organized into units. As of June 2006, there are a total of 3,275 units:
Prior to 1967 the number of units was limited to 1,200. The cap was increased to 1,600 units in 1967 and again to 3,500 units in 1992; the statutory limitation on the number of units was struck from the law in 2001. Their goal is to reach 3,500 units by Feb. 2011 by encouraging program expansion into educationally and economically deprived areas.
Units are set up according to the layout of their parent service, often referred to as the "Chain of Command." Army JROTC units follow a company (usually the period the class is held in), battalion (all periods), and at larger events brigade (multiple battalions) structure. Marine Corps JROTC units follow the battalion, or in cases of larger size, brigade structure. Air Force JROTC units are composed structurally based on size (wing if more than 251 cadets, group if more than 101, squadron if more than 51, Flight if 26, element is more than 2 less no more than 8, detail is 2, individual is 1). Navy JROTC typically follows the company (100-149 cadets), battalion (150-299 cadets), or regiment (300+ cadets) structure depending on the size of the unit.
|DoDBudget||FY 2007||FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Total U.S. $1,000||269,016||305,747||326,293|
JROTC is partly funded by the United States Department of Defense with an allocation in the military budget of about 340 million dollars for the fiscal year 2007, of which about 68 million are personnel costs. The federal governmentsubsidizes instructor salaries, cadet uniforms, equipment and textbooks. The instructors, usually retired military personnel, continue to receive retirement pay from the Federal government, but in addition, the schools pay the difference from what the instructors would receive if they were on active duty. The service concerned then reimburses the school for approximately one-half of the amount paid by the school to the instructor.
Although active duty officers may be assigned, most instructors are retired from the sponsoring branch of the Armed Forces. In the Army JROTC program, the cadet unit at each school is directed by at least one retired commissioned officer, a Senior Army Instructor (SAI), (in the grade of Captain through Colonel) or a Warrant Officer (WO1 through CW5) and at least one retired Non-Commissioned Officer, an Army Instructor (AI), (in the grade of Staff Sergeant through Command Sergeant Major). In certain situations there may be additional instructors.
A new provision from the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Section 540) was signed into law in October 2006, permitting retired Reserve Component officers and noncommissioned officers to be hired as instructors.
There are no national requirements that JROTC instructors have the teaching credential required by other teachers in public high school. In at least one jurisdiction (California), the government requires JROTC instructors to have at least four years of military experience and possess a high school diploma or equivalent. AJROTC instructors need to be within one year of retirement or retired from active military service for five or fewer years. MCJROTC instructors need to have graduated from high school, have at least 20 years of active military service and be physically qualified according to Marine Corps standards.
AFJROTC previously required a minimum of 20 years of active duty but has since been overridden by a provision in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Section 540), signed into law in October 2006, permitting retired Reserve Component (e.g., Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard officers and noncommissioned officers to be hired as instructors. Officer instructors need to have a minimum of a bachelor's degree, while a high school diploma or equivalent is sufficient for enlisted instructors.
For AJROTC the Non-commissioned Officer has to attain an associate degree (AA), with teaching credential, in order to be assigned an AI. To be assigned as a SAI the AJROTC Instructor has to hold a BA degree, with teaching credentials.
NJROTC also required a minimum of 20 years of active duty until it was overridden by a provision in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Section 540), signed into law in October 2006, permitting retired Reserve Component (e.g., U.S. Navy Reserve officers, chief petty officers and petty officers to be hired as instructors. The minimum education requirement for an enlisted naval science instructor is a high school diploma or equivalent, with a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university required for a commissioned officer senior naval science instructor. The Navy requires that JROTC instructors be employees of the school and that they are accorded the same status as other school faculty members.
National Defense Cadet Corps (NDCC) offers similar programs as JROTC. NDCC units differ from JROTC in that they receive little or no financial support from the Armed Forces; uniforms, equipment, other materials and instructor salaries must normally be furnished by the school hosting an NDCC program. Except for the funding aspects, JROTC and NDCC programs are virtually identical, although the cadet corps is not limited by the federal statute that restricts JROTC to offering courses only for students in ninth through 12th grades. Per 2005, Chicago had 26 Middle School Cadet Corps enlisting more than 850 students.
Instruction and activities
The Code of Federal Regulations states that JROTC is "designed for physically fit citizens attending participating schools." In public schools, JROTC is usually an elective course with membership limited to US citizens and legal foreign nationals, those who will graduate with their 9th grade cohort, and have not experienced an out of school suspension during the preceding six-month period. Often, students who participate for one year receive credit in lieu of a physical education class. Students who excel in the first year of JROTC can apply for a second year. Most schools offer three to four years of JROTC training.
Boarding schools or (pre-college) military schools may offer JROTC programs, with some requiring participation as a condition for acceptance to the school. Some public military schools mandate JROTC as a class for all grade levels, and have a curriculum that includes military history, military protocol, civics and physical fitness.Chicago has six public military academies, more than any other city and one-third of all in the country.
The JROTC program stresses military discipline, with a curriculum that emphasizes study of military science and military history. Cadets typically wear their uniforms once or twice a week, usually standing for inspection, with the exception being those cadets who attend a JROTC-based military academy. Their creed encourages conduct that brings credit to family, country, school and the corps of cadets, loyalty, citizenship and patriotism. Many cadets participate in extracurricular activities such as drill, color guard, rocketry or orienteering. At least two-thirds of JROTC units offer rifle marksmanship programs, and most of these have rifle or pistol teams. During the school year, there are regional competitions between JROTC units, with testing in all areas of military, naval and aerospace science. Some units organize special visits to US military bases during school breaks. There are also many summertime "leadership academies" for cadets hosted by various military installations.
Cadets may be awarded ribbons, ribbon devices, medals and aiguillettes for participation in JROTC and team activities, as well as for personal academic and athletic achievement and leadership. Awards may be presented by organizations other than the cadet's JROTC program, such as other JROTC programs, Military Officers Association of America, American Veterans, Order of the Daedalians, American Legion, and the National Rifle Association. Ribbons and medals are positioned in order of precedence, as prescribed by the Cadet Field Manual and the senior JROTC instructor.
Some units also host an annual formal military ball (mess dress) and formal dinner. Usually awards are presented. Female cadets are generally excused from wearing the dress uniform for military ball.
Sometimes units also have a separate awards ceremony, which is attended by the instructors, guests, and parents. Fraternal organizations, such as the American Legion, often give out awards for military excellence, academics, and citizenship, in addition to the standard awards given by the JROTC program.
The year may be finished with a change of command ceremony, where the new unit commander, executive officer, and other unit officers are named and take command from the current officers. Mid-level officers are also named. Some units choose the next year's NCO and junior officer corps based on officer and NCO candidate schools, usually held immediately following the end of the school year.
There are other extracurricular activities that the JROTC's programs provide for their cadets, including trips to military installations, ROTC college programs, and other sites that give the cadets a look at the military community.
Successful completion of a JROTC Program (1–3 years of classes) can lead to advanced rank upon enlistment in the Armed Forces. For example, upon completion of 3 years of Air Force JROTC, cadets may at their instructor's discretion enlist in the Air Force at the rank of Airman First Class (E-3). However, JROTC participation incurs no obligation to join the military.
A JROTC unit (through the Senior Instructor) may recommend current JROTC cadets for nomination to the Service Academy of the unit's branch. JROTC units designated as Honor Units may nominate up to three cadets to the Service Academy of any branch, in addition to the nominations to the unit's own branch academy.
Awards and decorations
Army Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps
Ribbons and awards
Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps
Navy Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps
ROTC & JROTC Recognition Program
The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) awards the ROTC Medal to foster the principle of the “citizen-soldier,” exemplified by the Minutemen of Revolutionary War days. This award is presented by an SAR Chapter, State-level Society, or the National Society to ROTC or JROTC cadets who are selected for having a high degree of merit with respect to leadership qualities, military bearing, and general excellence. The recipients are selected by the Commanding Officer of the ROTC or JROTC unit, who should be given full latitude in making the selection.
SAR members are direct descendants of those patriots that achieved the independence of the American people and the objectives of the organization are intended to perpetuate a more profound reverence for the principles of the government founded by our forefathers. Such were the ideals of Captain Alden Partridge, who is considered the founder of the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program in the United States. Partridge founded the ROTC because his father, Samuel Partridge, a soldier of the Revolution, had concern for the newly founded United States and its lacking a development resource for qualified military officers. SAR supports all programs that encourage historical research, foster true patriotism, and maintain and extend the institutions of American freedom. It strongly supports the United States ROTC and JROTC as exemplary programs of these ideals.
For ROTC or JROTC units with fewer than five hundred cadets or midshipmen, one ROTC or JROTC Recognition medal will be awarded each year. For larger units, one medal may be presented for every five hundred students enrolled in the unit. In cases where a school has more than one ROTC or JROTC unit, each unit is counted separately. The Silver ROTC Medal is presented only to students in a college or university ROTC unit and no recipient may receive it more than once. The Bronze JROTC Medal was authorized in 1965, and is presented only to students in secondary school JROTC and no recipient may receive it more than once. As of June 15, 1998, the U.S. Navy Sea Cadet Corps (NSCC) is no longer eligible to receive the SAR JROTC Bronze Medal. Instead, the NSCC should be supported by recognizing the outstanding NSCC cadet with the SAR Bronze Good Citizenship Medal.
The winner of each state-level society competition will be entered into the National JROTC Recognition program. The winning cadet at the society level will be flown to the SAR Congress to attend, receive his or her award, and be recognized by the SAR. The award will be the National JROTC Medallion and a cash award of $2,000. level will be flown to the SAR Congress to attend, receive his or her award, and be recognized by the SAR. The award will be the National JROTC Medallion and a cash award of $2,000. A complete set of rules, along with the application for both the applicant and the sponsoring SAR members, can be found below. Please be aware that the local application deadline dates may vary, so interested applicants should reach out to their local SAR member listed below for further details.
JROTC Application and Instructions
|SAR Society||ROTC & JROTC Contact|
|Alabama SAR||Richard H. Wells|
137 East Poplar Street
Prattville, AL 36066-3638
|Alaska SAR||Walter W. John|
6552 Lakeway Drive
Anchorage, AK 99502-1949
|Arkansas SAR||Jerold W. Montgomery|
137 Jeri Lane
Mountain Home, AR 72653
|Arizona SAR||Edward Boyd|
5851 East Elmwood Street
Mesa, AZ 85205-5833
|California SAR||Robert R. Dickey|
|Colorado SAR||Robert Haines|
1812 Montane Drive East
Golden, CO 80401
|Connecticut SAR||David J. Perkins|
3 Clearview Avenue
Bethel, CT 06801-3003
|Dakota SAR||Donald L. Kellogg|
P.O. Box 799
Edgemont, SD 57735
|Delaware SAR||Matthew J. Barlow, Jr.|
103 Breezy Point
Rehoboth Beach, DE 19971-4163
|District of Columbia SAR||Lane Douglas Brooks|
7820 Valleyfield Drive
Springfield, VA 22153-4118
Peter A. Dixon
111 Duke Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-3803
|Empire State SAR||Brent W. Downing|
65 Erie Crescent
Fairport, NY 14450-2472
|Florida SAR||James L. Gibson, Jr.|
419 Bamboo Lane
Largo, FL 33770-4085
|Georgia SAR||David G. Jessel|
10 College Street
Newnan, GA 30263
|Hawaii SAR||Arthur N. Tulak|
745 Fort Street, Suite #311
Honolulu, HI 96813
|Idaho SAR||Francis L. Huntley|
283 Skyline Heights Drive
Orofino, ID 83544-6120
|Illinois SAR||Charles D. Dobias|
127 Briar Ridge Drive
Collinsville, IL 62234
|Indiana SAR||Gary C. Steinhardt|
2602 Nottingham Place
West Lafayette, IN 47906-5023
|Iowa SAR||Doug Frazer|
4410 Skyline Drive
Des Moines, IA 50310
|Kansas SAR||T. Brooks Lyles, Jr.|
2918 Garland Street
Leavenworth, KS 66048
|Kentucky SAR||Jackie D. Miller|
PO Box 94
Berry, KY 41003
|Louisiana SAR||Charles L. McNeely|
1276 Highway 494
Natchitoches, LA 71457-2810
|Maine SAR||Wayne H. Mallar|
103 Essex Street
Bangor, ME 04401-5301
|Maryland SAR||George Satterthwaite II|
513 Holly Road
Fort Washington, MD 20744
|Massachusetts SAR||William E. Battles III|
33 Marlboro Road
Brewster, MA 02631-2857
|Michigan SAR||Michael G. LaVean|
5 East Main Street
Saranac, MI 48881
|Minnesota SAR||John H. Jones|
2700 East MInnehaha Parkway
Minneapolis, MN 55406-3743
|Mississippi SAR||Andrew M. Jones|
600 South Court Street
Cleveland, MS 38732
|Missouri SAR||Kenneth W. Lawrence|
4915 South Pratt Avenue
Springfield, MO 65804
|Montana SAR||Daniel D. Hill|
P.O. Box 10755
Bozeman, MT 58719
|Nebraska SAR||John T. Parsons|
1512 Beechwood Avenue
Papillion, NE 68133-2506
|Nevada SAR||Roger E. Linscott|
870 Matterhorn Boulevard
Reno, NV 89506-7912
|New Hampshire SAR||James L. Veach|
|New Jersey SAR||Christopher D. Sands|
44 Roger Avenue
Cranford, NJ 07016
|New Mexico SAR||Andrew S. Lyngar, Jr.|
300-2McCombs Road, P.O. Box 86
Chaparral, NM 88081-7937
|North Carolina SAR||Michael T. Aycock|
Elizabethtown, NC 28337
|Ohio SAR||Terry A. Whetstone|
1761 Golfview Drive
Springfield, OH 45502-7201
|Oklahoma SAR||Kenneth W. Young|
1218 Richmond Road
Edmond, OK 73034-3243
|Oregon SAR||Robert A. Bogardus|
4675 Goodpasture Loop, Apt. #146
Eugene, OR 97401-1569
|Pennsylvania SAR||Raynold L. Prusia|
15063 Limber Road
Meadville, PA 16335-5331
|Rhode Island SAR||John W. Adams|
131 Spencer Woods Drive
East Greenwich, RI 02818-5055
|South Carolina SAR||Frank Brown|
190 Loring Mill Road
Sumter, SC 29150
|Tennessee SAR||Raymond A. Clapsadle|
48 Redthorn Cove
Cordova, TN 38018-7244
|Texas SAR||John K. Thompson|
10 Gate Hill Drive
The Woodlands, TX 77381-3278
|Utah SAR||Kit K. Workman|
2067 West 470 North
West Point, UT 84015
|Vermont SAR||James L. Barr|
21 Chase Street
Burlington, VT 05401-1507
Zachariah L. Fike
119 Overlake Drive
Georgia, VT 05454
|Virginia SAR||Spurgeon C. Keith, Jr.|
5107 Hunting Hills Drive
Roanoke, VA 24018
|Washington SAR||Alan M. Mandigo|
4610 29th Avenue NE
Tacoma, WA 98422-4449
Conrad A. Plyler, Jr.
1894 Valley Avenue E
Port Orchard, WA 98366-8505
|West Virginia SAR||Richard I. Greathouse|
16 Twin Oaks Drive
Clendenin, WV 25045
|Wisconsin SAR||Randolf L. Will|
9706 Alderson Street, Apt. #8
Schofield, WI 54476
|Wyoming SAR||Ronald A. Steffensmeier|
1444 East Sunlight Drive
Casper, WY 82601-6800
These young men and women are the past winners of the SAR’s ROTC & JROTC Recognition Program.
|Year||Winning Cadet||Sponsoring SAR Society|
|2016||AJROTC Cadet Maj. Avero Howard||Georgia SAR|
|2015||AFJROTC Cadet Maj. Roslayn Carlisi||Utah SAR|
|2014||AFJROTC Cadet Capt. Cameron A. Hoover||California SAR|
|2013||AJROTC Cadet Lt. Col. Victoria Offei-Dua||Alabama SAR|
|2012||AFJROTC Cadet Maj. Jared Reese||Texas SAR|
|2010||AFJROTC Cadet Lt. Col. Sierra McVeigh||Florida SAR|
|2009||AJROTC Cadet Capt. Wesley J. Althaus||Tennessee SAR|
|2008||AJROTC Cadet Maj. Amber Johnson||Illinois SAR|
|2007||JROTC Cadet Capt. Stephen Bryant||South Carolina SAR|
|2006||JROTC Cadet Maj. Jacob R. Cook||Louisiana SAR|
|2005||AFJROTC Cadet Maj. Michael R. Calkins||Arizona SAR|
|2004||AFJROTC Cadet Maj. Amanda M. Howard||Ohio SAR|
|2003||JROTC Cadet Capt. Patrick Fourroux||Louisiana SAR|
|2002||JROTC Cadet Lt. Col. Jonathan Coward||Florida SAR|
|2001||JROTC Cadet Lt. Col. Kayln Eidschun||North Carolina SAR|
|2000||JROTC Cadet Maj. Nicholas J. Downing||SAR ROTC & JROTC Committee and Virginia SAR|
|1999||JROTC Cadet 2Lt. Anthony B. Aguilar||Texas SAR|
|1998||NJROTC Battalion Cdr. Rosalyn Pham||Washington SAR|